Monday, September 30, 2019

A clean cut differentiation between the two is one explained by Robert Cialdini

In a world where its inhabitants have diverse beliefs and point of views, it is usually difficult to influence others to change their perspectives; hence, man resorts to persuasion or manipulation to achieve this end. Persuasion and manipulation are two different concepts that are more or less synonymous, but it is in their little differences that we are able to know better these two terminologies.It is said that â€Å"manipulation aims at control; not cooperation. It always results in a lose-lose situation. Persuasion, on the other hand, always builds the self-esteem of the other party. It treats the other person as a responsible and self-directing individual (Swets, 2006).† Thus, control is the basis of manipulation, while cooperation is that of persuasion.Manipulation, in order to be done, is complemented with the use of coercion and deceit just to influence a person to do something. On the other hand, persuasion tries to influence people up to the extent necessary, but not crossing into the unethical aspects of influencing people. It tries to get people to agree to certain things on their own decision.A clean cut differentiation between the two is one explained by Robert Cialdini (2005), a psychologist. He said that manipulation involves the unethical use of the principles of persuasion and some of those involve brute force or coercion to achieve a goal.Persuasion involves the use of principles that exist in the situation and that allow us to inform people into yes, to educate them into yes, by giving them a view of reality as we see it. It involves moving them in a direction that we desire, on the basis of valid information.Thus, it is suggested that persuasion must be resorted always rather than manipulation because the latter tends to lean on the negative side. Persuasion is a civilized way of influencing people.References:Swets, P. (2006), ‘The Art of Talking So That People Will Listen’ in Burg, B. (2006). Persuasion†¦or Manipul ation: Are They Different Things? [webpage] accessed: 4 April 2007.Cialdini, R, (2005), The Psychology of Persuasion [webpage] accessed: 4 April 2007

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Study Plan for Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering and its importance Advertisements Chemical engineering has a number of applications in our day to day lives. This course is offered to students at the graduate and postgraduate levels. Upon the accomplishment of their studies, individuals can apply for jobs with firms of the private or public sector firms. Placement opportunities are available for aspirants within some of the prestigious Indian firms such as Reliance and Indian Oil etc. One can say that this sector is one of the many areas where one can get good jobs as well as other opportunities of the right type.In this article we are going to discuss about the importance of chemical engineering as well as its numerous applications. Importance of Chemical Engineering Areas where chemical engineering is applicable in our day to day lives include: Coal preparation and mineral processing Explosives manufacturing Fertilizer industry Food processing Glass and specialty chemicals Paints Steel and aluminum production In addition to the above mentioned areas, chemical engineering also has applications in production of electronics, clothing, paper and photographic equipment etc.The scope for individuals in the field of chemical engineering is bound to grow in time. This is mainly because of industrial growth as well as the related scarcity of the resources those are required. In future years, chemical engineers will be needed to develop synthetic replacement for those resources as well as materials that are low in supply. In overall, it can be said that chemical engineers will be able to make very crucial contributions to the improvement in addition to the maintenance of the quality of our lives.Areas where one can apply his knowledge: Although chemical engineering is relatively a new field, this field of engineering has shown a speedy expansion during the last few decades. This has in turn led to rise in importance of chemical engineering as well as the number of jobs. Career opportunities for t hese professionals are available with R&D departments, especially in the field of energy as well in developing fields such as nanotechnology and biotechnology. Chemical Plants Petrochemical Plants Pharmaceuticals Petroleum Refining PlantsMineral Based Industries Electronics Industry Photographic Equipment Units Clothing Units Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Aircraft Industry Some Job Types Supervisor Technical Specialist Project Manager Project Engineer Teacher Researcher Environmental, Safety & Regulatory Manager Quality Manager Senior Process Engineer Product Development Engineer Fuel Meter Calibration Technician In the government sector, chemical engineers can find jobs in areas where solutions for environmental problems like recycling, water treatment and others are needed.They can also get work with departments of energy conservation as well as with defense establishments. Sir William Wakeham on the Importance of Chemical Engineering Sep. 06, 2011 Sir William Wakeham, President, I ChemE Sir William Wakeham, President, IChemE more Sir William Wakeham, President, IChemE From Reliance Industries’ Mukesh Ambani to stand-up comedian and perpetual watermelon smasher †¦ A Wide Range – From Reliance Industries' Mukesh Ambani and SABIC's Mohammed al-Mady to stand-up comedian and perpetual watermelon smasher Gallagher, chemical engineers can be found in almost every walk of life. And if you have never heard of Gallagher, you can replace him with Dolph Lundgren, who forewent a career in chemical engineering when he found success as Ivan Drago in the movie Rocky IV). These days, chemical engineering is as diverse as the people who study it, covering areas from biotechnology to mineral processing, and its significance for the chemical industry is now more important than ever. Sir William Wakeham is currently president of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE), a global professional membership organization for people who have an interest in and r elevant experience in chemical engineering.He spoke with Brandi Schuster on how the field has evolved, what IChemE does to encourage students to study chemical engineering and the importance of having chemical engineers in all levels within chemical and pharmaceutical companies. CHEManager Europe: Sir William, the term â€Å"chemical engineering† doesn't have quite the same meaning as maybe 50 years ago. How do you think the profession has evolved? Sir William Wakeham: These days there is much more of a focus on the word â€Å"process engineering† rather than â€Å"chemical engineering. Often the processes involved are still chemical, but they now encompass many more things than we thought about 50 years ago. These days you have trained chemical engineers working in many process applications that aren't necessarily within the traditional realm of the chemical industry. One example of that is within the pharmaceutical business, in formulation engineering. This consists of the construction of pills, which goes hand-in-hand with the drug formulations.That involves quite a lot of chemical engineering, but wouldn't have been thought of as such 50 years ago. It's a similar situation within the water industry. There is a lot of activity which could be considered process engineering, and probably most of the reactions, if there are any, are biological reactions. All in all, I think the term has been broaden quite a bit over the last several decades in order to include many more aspects and technologies. In fact, the term â€Å"chemical engineer† is probably being replaced by â€Å"process engineer. Is the future of chemical engineering one with a very broad base? Sir William Wakeham: Yes, and in my own experience, trained chemical or process engineers are the kinds of engineers who are most able to work with other disciplines, because they have already quite a breadth in their formation as engineers. That is not quite the same for, let's say, ci vil engineers whose chemistry training is quite limited. Process engineers have a unique opportunity to bring scientists and other engineers together.Most of the big problems that the world is facing are a bit like that; people have to be brought together from different areas. What about diversity within the profession, particularly when it comes to women? Sir William Wakeham: In the UK, total chemical engineering undergraduate numbers are the most positive for women's recruitment of any engineering discipline. In the UK, about 27% of chemical engineering students are women; this is certainly a step in the right direction. What kind of activities does IChemE have to encourage more people to study chemical engineering?Sir William Wakeham: We have an enormous focus on bringing people into chemical engineering courses; this has, at least in the UK, pushed the numbers through the roof. We are particularly interested in attracting women, and one of the key elements of doing that is havin g women on the staff of chemical engineering departments who do the recruitment. Here in the UK, most departments have a substantial number of women on their faculty. In other areas of the world, such as in the Middle East, there are some cultural issues that are additional difficulty.However, in Malaysia, where we are also active, there are a significant number of women studying chemical engineering now. Apart from its European offices, IChemE is also represented in Asia, Africa and Australasia. Do you work towards promoting chemical engineering for women in these parts of the world as well? Sir William Wakeham: Yes. We have been using our activities in the UK as a basis, but fine-tuning it for the different cultural backgrounds. Clearly what needs to be done in Malaysia is not the same thing as what needs to be one in the UK. Our offices in these areas are usually staffed by local people, which is important for creating an understanding of the country's needs. What is a chemical e ngineer's role in an oil and gas industry? 2 years ago Report Abuse Shape Shape Best Answer – Chosen by Voters This is a very broad question as chemical engineers (as in someone with a chemical engineering degree) can do many different engineering jobs in the oil and gas industry, but other engineers can do them as well.For example I know people with mechanical and chemical engineering degrees that are maintenance engineers with the same job responsibilities. The same goes for a drilling fluid engineer which could be held by people of varying background and technical degrees. A chemical engineer can be involved in all parts of the oil and gas industry from building the oil rigs, drilling the wells, pumping it out of the ground, transferring it through pipelines, separating in into usable chemicals in a refinery, and finally making petroleum based products in a chemical plant.Source(s): Chemical Engineer Where Do Chemical Engineers Fit into the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry? B y Katie Horner | Comments (8) Before working for an upstream oil company, I was under the impression that chemical engineers working in oil and gas belonged in pipeline and downstream operations. For those of you not in the industry, most large, integrated oil companies consist of an upstream organization and a downstream organization. The former focuses on exploration and production and the latter refines crude petroleum into usable products (gasoline, lubricants, etc. . Within upstream, processes and departments are often separated by subsurface work and surface facility work. Generally, most ChemE’s in upstream are found on the facility side, managing projects related to tanks, pumps, pipelines and separators. Pumping Unit in Bakersfield, Ca You may be asking, what about subsurface? And, can chemical engineers contribute to a traditionally petroleum engineering realm? The answer is, most definitely! A reservoir is essentially a large tank filled with porous media and reser voir fluids – oil, gas and water.In order to recover oil or gas from a reservoir, chemical engineering fundamentals such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and heat transfer must be understood and applied. Petroleum engineering is not an exact science. Precise reservoir boundaries are often unknown, PVT samples are few and far between, recovery mechanisms are sometimes unclear, and original and current oil in place is determined probabilistically. The fact is, it wouldn’t be economical to collect all of the data to make it an exact science.Without having all of the data, oil companies still have been successful in recovering resources thus far. However, we’ve picked the low hanging fruit when it comes to oil and gas resources and are moving toward environments with increased complexity – heavy oil, challenging shale plays, tight gas, deepwater exploration, etc. It’s often said that the best place to find oil is within currently or previously produc ing reservoirs. As we go back in and try to capture the residual oil, chemical engineering concepts will be critical in designing processes to recover these resources.Many oil or gas recovery mechanisms are well understood, such as waterfloods or gas cap expansion. Fortunately for our profession, there are areas, such as steam and polymer floods, that still need the keen eyes of engineers to model and optimize. As we attempt to tackle the current global energy challenges, oil and gas will continue to be a key factor in the equation. While the focus of many chemical engineering graduates is in alternative energy solutions, there are still plenty of opportunities for a chemical engineer to make an impact in the world of upstream oil and gas.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Does the european union need a constitution Essay

Does the european union need a constitution - Essay Example However, the bigger picture is, will it be integrative of them as one whole body A constitution must serve the best interests not just one or a few member states. Devanny (2004) says the debate about whether the EU should adopt a constitution has been protracted and controversial. It is both a practical debate (Does the EU need a constitution) and a more abstract debate (Is the EU the kind of entity/organisation that should adopt a constitution). According to Murkens (2002), the European Union leaders at the Laeken summit in December 2001 had agreed to a constitutional convention headed by the former French President Valry Giscard D'Estaing to craft an EU constitution. And yet, the European Court of Justice (ECJ), the German Federal Constitutional Court, and academic commentators say the founding treaties already form a constitution. From Murkens (2002) - "In its famous decision in Van Gend en Loos in 1963 the ECJ held that the Treaty of Rome had created a Community not only of governments but of peoples, and that the Member States had agreed to limit their sovereign rights in certain fields. A year later the ECJ established the doctrine of supremacy of Community law in Costa v. ENEL which was basically accepted by national constitutional courts. These decisions heralded the 'creeping constitutionalisation' of Community law. The novelty of the ECJ's approach was that it did not try to squeeze the Treaty into the constitutional mould of the Verfassungsstaat. More important than the 'formal constitution' was the interpretation of the Treaty by the ECJ as the 'material constitution' (Petersmann 1991: 28), whose basic tenets include the doctrines of direct effect, supremacy, and implied powers, as well as respect for human rights." The arguments for and against an EU constitution rest on complicated issues of law, sovereignty, political philosophy and the efficiency and effectiveness of the EU's institutions and procedures (Murkens 2002). At the June 2004 European Council meeting, governments of the 25 EU member states signed a constitutional treaty for the European Union (Closa 2004). Intended to include voices not usually heard in the European integration process, this treaty was drafted by a "Convention on the Future of Europe." From there, member state governments negotiated on the draft that eventually produced a treaty (Ibid). But the process is far from over. It has just entered its final and perhaps most difficult phase. According to Closa (2004), the text must be ratified unanimously by the member states, each according to its own national process, but there are uncertainties that may spell disaster for the future of European integration (Ibid). II. From treaties to Constitution A timeline (History, Wikipedia 2005) shows the development of seven treaties into EU constitution from 1952 to 2003 to include - 1952: Treaty of Paris, 1958: Treaties of Rome, 1967: Merger Treaty, 1987: Single European Act, 1993: Treaty of Maastricht, 1999: Treaty of Amsterdam, and 2003: Treaty of Nice. The European Constitution is being hoped to be enacted in the soonest future. The three pillars are: 1) the European Communities (the European Coal and Steel Community or ECSC which came about in 1952; the European Community or EC which came around in 1958; the European Atomic

Friday, September 27, 2019

International business .....what relationship, if any exists between Essay

International business .....what relationship, if any exists between business processes and culture - Essay Example Business processes are therefore dependent on the culture within which the business operates which gives the business environmental acceptance and adaptability and therefore giving the business a performance measurement tool. Culture has in any case direct effect on implementation of projects hence their success or failure. Since process business projects require activities that are complex and cross-functional it follows that the success or failure of such projects lies in how the company and its stakeholders respect the shared values and beliefs. Culture tends to link the producer and the consumer at the market level through a mutual interaction and recognition of the values and beliefs shared between the producer and consumer of the product or service. It should be notable however that since consumer values and beliefs is exponentially elastic and depends on their perceived value of the product or service placed in the market it is for the companies to adjust the business process alongside the consumer national or global culture. It is therefore true to say that there is a strong relationship between culture and business process which is manifested at the meeting point in the market.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Phenomenon Of Terrorism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Phenomenon Of Terrorism - Research Paper Example Body Causes of terrorism Ethnicity and separation are two factors that significantly contribute to terrorism in different countries. Individuals from nations that are not united tend to cause trouble to other nations as a way of finding the key cause of disagreements to their own nations (Bjorgo,  2005). Separation among different nations can also be explained by political and religious differences. This also brings in the issue of racism in a country. When a country has some form of inequality, it will definitely have many terrorism cases because people will not be united. For instance, in the year 1990, racism in the United States caused terrorism cases to increase because, each group wanted to defend itself from being attacked by the other. Separation in the community can also be explained from a different point of view where there is a group of persons in the society that are dissatisfied (Crenshaw, 1981). Some individuals in the community may feel that they are not being given equal rights as other individuals. Thus, they might engage in terrorism acts in order to have such rights too. Therefore, inequality in the society can fuel terrorism. This is because; inequality and unfairness causes feelings of depression among people. Consequently, it causes individuals to act out of frustration and anger (Al-Thagafi & Army War College (U.S.), 2008). Terrorism can also be caused by the lack of or unequal opportunities for political participation (Crenshaw, 1981). When political opportunities are only available to a certain group of people in the society, then other individuals will use terrorism acts to obtain political power. This is a case where by politicians who obtain power in the wrong... Some individuals in the community may feel that they are not being given equal rights as other individuals. Thus, they might engage in terrorist acts in order to have such rights too. Therefore, inequality in the society can fuel terrorism. This is because; inequality and unfairness cause feelings of depression among people. Consequently, it causes individuals to act out of frustration and anger (Al-Thagafi & Army War College (U.S.), 2008). Terrorism can also be caused by the lack of or unequal opportunities for political participation (Crenshaw, 1981). When political opportunities are only available to a certain group of people in the society, then other individuals will use terrorist acts to obtain political power. This is a case where by politicians who obtain power in the wrong manner end up being killed in terrorism. When individuals are not in support of the governance of a country, they tend to engage in terrorist acts in order to eliminate the individuals in leadership. This can also be referred to as anti-democracy. When there are a large number of weaknesses in a democratic government, terrorism is bound to increase. This is because; democracy involves a lot of openness, which makes terrorists be in possession of information that they can use to plan terrorist attacks. Effects of Terrorism Terrorism is normally directed at disrupting and disorganizing government procedures in a country. It weakens and damages the operations of leadership in a country (Houle, 2005).

Strategic Analysis and Choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Strategic Analysis and Choice - Essay Example In 1994, BMW acquired Mini. (Seidel, 2004) It was in 1998 when BMW decided to acquire Rolls-Royce Motor for  £340 million. Volkswagen outbid the said amount at the price of  £430 million. However, since BMW was a supplier of engines and other components to Rolls-Royce, BMW was given the right to carry the name of Rolls-Royce name and logo. (Think Quest, 2006) As a sign of BMW competency and success as a luxury car manufacturer, BMW’s most recent financial report revealed that the company has reached a total gross profit of â‚ ¬5,422 million as of 2005. (BMW Group, 2005) Established back in 1989, Lexus was launched by Toyota Motor Corporation with the purpose of creating a world-class luxury car brand. (, 2007) Since then, the company has been known for its innovative engineering and meticulous quality. For many years, the company is very much focused in developing new models and other related technological innovations. Despite the fact the Lexus has only been in the global automobile industry less than 20 years, Lexus has been considered as one of the big winners of the European car market back in 2006. (Edmondson, 2007) The company was able to increase its sales by up to 72% in 2006 with 36,662 car units within 15 European Union countries. (Edmondson, 2006) Back in 2005, Lexus together with Toyota was able to sell a total of 964,208 units as compared to BMW’s 632,396 sold units throughout Europe. (Edmondson, 2006) To give us a better insight regarding the main purpose of Michael Porter’s competitive advantage model, the researcher will discuss about the arguments of different authors concerning the accuracy and the main use of this model. For the purpose of this study, the researcher will determine each of the company’s strength aside from using Porter’s model as part of analyzing its corresponding competitive advantages.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

What role do vulnerability and resilience play in the emergence of Essay

What role do vulnerability and resilience play in the emergence of atypical child development - Essay Example Genetic and environmental factors interact with varying degrees of plasticity to effect developmental change. To very briefly outline the stages, or milestones of a child’s growth from birth onwards, research has identified, physical, motor, cognitive. socio-emotional, language acquisition variables, and their mechanisms, along with speed and pattern of development in terms of both population and individual differences. In spite of minor variations due to cultural and environmental factors, there is wide agreement as to what could be seen as ‘gifted’ or super-normal development and, at the other end, sub-normal or less than optimal development and functioning of children. Such differences are likely to persist into adulthood. However, the term atypical development is used more in the context of sub-normal rather than super-normal populations. More recent research into the lower end of the scale in child development, which is a minority, and considered atypical under normal conditions, has concentrated on what have been identified as vulnerability and resilience factors. The motivation has been to identify, intervene, and actively improve the chances of accomplishment of a satisfactory life trajectory for those children identified as being in danger of failing to reach societal norms of everyday life. To emphasise the global spread of child development research and application, studies from the USA, Australia and South Africa within the last decade are cited in this essay; (Masten & Gewirtz (2006), Mutimer, Reece, and Matthews (2007), Theron (2006). Vulnerability in children is described as risk factors, both individual and environmental hazards, which tend to result in negative developmental outcomes. Among individual characteristics are, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, in-utero experience of maternal drug use, physical disability, and a variety of genetic defects. Among the immediate environmental hazards are family

Monday, September 23, 2019

Feedback Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Feedback - Essay Example nd of the first placement student social work should demonstrate effective use of knowledge, skills and commitment to core values in social work in a given setting in predominantly less complex situations, with supervision and support. They will have demonstrated capacity to work with people and situations where there may not be simple clear-cut solutions. By the end of last placement student social workers should have demonstrated the knowledge, skills and values to work with a range of user groups, and the ability to undertake a range of tasks at a foundation level, the capacity to work with more complex situations; they should be able to work more autonomously, whilst recognising that the final decision will still rest with their supervisor; they will seek appropriate support and supervision. Mimi instructed the children with clarity about the activity and how to care for it afterwards (name and brief instruction on the plastic cup) she displayed patience when reminding the children how much water/seeds where needed. Even after they had completed the task (wanted more seeds) an understanding of the differences in age and ability was reflected in her approach – giving me or less where necessary. Mimi respected the children wishes by allowing then not to participate if they didn’t want to, health and safety was adhered to by Mimi ensuring that hands where washed after the activity and area was swept clean and all traces of debris cleared. I would consider the feedback given by the professional as an apt assessment of my engagement in social work activity throughout my placement period. Indeed, I concur that the instructor guided me well through the activities. We held several close meetings with the qualified social worker, and I must confess it was quite intimate. Never have I engaged a qualified person in his/her field in a close discussion. I would confess it was the first time. Nevertheless, I composed myself and managed to participate objectively

Sunday, September 22, 2019

10.What was the impact of the French Revolution on the European system Essay

10.What was the impact of the French Revolution on the European system - Essay Example There was â€Å"a vast peasantry accounting for one in seven or one in eight of the population, most of whom were legally free but bound to their seigneur †¦ by a myriad of services and obligations surviving from the medieval past. †¦ And, in cities, †¦ a great urban population of innumerable crafts and occupations, for the most part poor and depending for survival on cheap and plentiful bread† (Rude 1995). When they rose up against their king, overthrew their monarchy and established a new social order, the French did something no other country on the European continent had done, which had a profound effect upon the other European nations who sat watching to see what would happen. This small war completely contained within the country and lasting only 12 years would send ripples throughout Europe and have consequences that would reach as far as North America and the Dutch East Indies (Taylor, 2006). The changes brought about by the French Revolution were cultur al, social and political. As the rumors spread regarding the fall of the Bastille, people in twenty-eight of the largest thirty cities in France were reported to have staged uprisings and hundreds of thousands of peasants in the rural areas attacked lords’ manors and destroyed other symbols of the seigneurialism system throughout the summer of 1789. This gave rise to a wide-spread wave of mass panic, known now as the â€Å"Great Fear†, in which the people pulled down the old system of French feudalism â€Å"and the state machine of royal France lay in fragments† (Hobsbawm 1969) as the bourgeoisie drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and limited the King’s power. â€Å"Between 1789-1791, the victorious moderate bourgeoisie, acting through what had now become the Constituent Assembly, set about the gigantic rationalization and reform of France †¦ its policy for the peasantry was the enclosure of common lands and the encouragement of rural entrepreneurs, for the working-class,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

About Sovereigns and Tyrants Essay Example for Free

About Sovereigns and Tyrants Essay There is a great distinction between a sovereign and a tyrant, although oftentimes people are confused by the meaning of the two. A sovereign is a leader of state that acquired his or her position by being elected or appointed by the people. A tyrant, on the other hand, is a self proclaimed leader, assuming leadership â€Å"without election, or right of succession, or lot, or a just war, or a special calling from God† (Bodin, 1992). Under the circumstances of tyranny, it is lawful or permissible to kill the tyrant. The primary moral reason here, especially in a democratic state, is to bring back power to the hands of the people. However, there is an exception here. If, after assuming tyranny, the tyrant’s rule becomes ratified by election or permission from the people, then it is no longer permissible to kill or persecute the tyrant without a fair trial. See more:  The 3 Types of Satire Essay It is possible for a sovereign prince to become a tyrant. When this happens, some people who share authority over the state (such as senators, aristocrats, and the people themselves) have a right to eliminate the sovereign-tyrant in order to deliver the unjustly oppressed. This can either be done by means of law, or by means of force. A foreign ruler may also be rather fit to do this task than the citizens of the state. On the other hand, a true sovereign ruler differs from a tyrant in that he (or she) has rightful absolute power over the entire state and he doesn’t share it with any of his subjects. Monarchs of England during older times are good examples of sovereign rulers. They obtained their leadership by law and birthright, and thus they cannot be considered as tyrants. It is not lawful then, to unjustly kill, plot against, resist, or even think about hurting a sovereign ruler. Such an act is nothing less than high treason and punishable by death. Bibliography: Bodin, J. (1992). On sovereignty (J.H. Franklin, Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Friday, September 20, 2019

Policy on Refugees and Integration in Costa Rica

Policy on Refugees and Integration in Costa Rica COSTA RICAN GOVERNMENT POLICY ON REFUGEE AID AND INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION: THE AMBIGUOUS STATUS OF THE REFUGEE AND COSTA RICA The problem of the refugee originates as a peculiarly twentieth century phenomenon. The displacement of peoples from the very borders that delineate states presented a historical challenge that threatened the integrity and the essence of the latter. As the philosopher Giorgio Agamben abstracts the pertinence of this problem: Every time refugees no longer represent individual cases but rather a mass phenomenon (as happened between the two wars, and has happened again now), both these organizations and the single states have proven, despite the solemn evocations of the inalienable rights of man, to be absolutely incapable not only of resolving the problem but also simply of dealing with it adequately.[1] For Agamben, this inadequacy of the treatment of the refugee problem, despite the international consensus on the existence of the human rights of the refugee, is intimately tied to the theoretical shortcomings of the notion of the Nation-State itself; there is a consistent rupture in t he functionality of the Nation State when confronted with the anomaly of the refugee, i.e., when a subject is separated from his/her state, this subject becomes a disturbing remainder that other states find it difficult to account for. Thus, insofar as the refugee denotes a certain failure of the Nation State to protect its citizens/non-citizens, the case of the refugee denotes the limit of the State. Nevertheless, despite the tension between the notions of the refugee and the state that ground their relationship, there is an attentiveness to this problematic (evinced in Agambens own remark), demonstrated by the general consciousness of the existence of the refugee. Hence, regardless of any discerned policy inadequacies, there still exists a concerted effort to address the problem. The success of various refugee policies certainly may be evaluated, e.g., as with Agambens negative evaluation. In the case of Costa Rica, its treatments of the refugee crises that began in 1980s Central America was an example of some moderate successes, or at least, the desired mobilization of a states capabilities via governmental policy towards the refugee cause. However, this mobilization encountered its own distinct problems, over-determined (following Agambens abstraction of the problem) by the irregular status of the refugee him/herself. The successes and failures of Costa Ricas refugee policy is a particularly significant case study for numerous reasons. To the degree that there was a concerted effort from the Costa Rican officials to alleviate the refugee crisis, the shortcomings relate not to Costa Ricas negligence of this crisis (thusly indicating the direction of an evaluation of this policy in terms of a general apathy on the part of Costa Rica), but the opposite: it is this very effort that provides a compelling case for an analysis of a refugee policy in terms of its affectivity and its limits. That is, Costa Ricas attempt to rectify their refugee problem, rather than ignore it or deal with it in a manner that undermines the notions of the rights of man, provides an excellent paradigmatic case for the possible indexing of refugee policy. It is because of this very commitment to alleviating the problem that Costa Rica, despite any subsequent further critiques regarding the details of their refugee policy, is recognized by the international community as having advanced a fairly successful policy in regards to refugees. As Tanya Bysok notes Costa Rica is often cited as a model for refugee settlement.[2] However, this is not to suggest that the Costa Rican approach is flawless. Whilst some policies of the Costa Ricans have been recognized as effective by social scientists, this praise does not diminish the evident gaps in the Costa Rican policy. In this paper we shall examine the Costa Rican treatment of the refugee and attempt to understand how the refugee was integrated/or non-integrated into Costa Rican society. This analysis will be concerned with Costa Ricas approach; however, whilst there was a clear Costa Rican governmental policy, a significant factor in the Costa Rican case is the large presence of foreign organ izations that were encouraged to participate in a possible refugee solution. Thus, because of the Costa Rican openness to a diversity of aid organizations and volunteers offering support, the qualitative analysis of the success/failures of the Costa Rican approach cannot merely be attributed to the Costa Rican government itself. Whilst this encouragement of international participation may be logically viewed as an autonomous gesture of the Costa Rican government, it can also be construed as Costa Ricas self-acknowledgement of having been fundamentally overstretched in terms of its capabilities to handle the problem. Secondly, this analysis shall be supplemented with an anonymous questionnaire of former refugees in Costa Rica, in order to introduce a non-theoretical personal discourse within the parameters of our text. The method of the questionnaire is placed into the paper to act as a balancing point with the theoretical evaluation. The emphasis on the notion of testimony, a form of empiricism all its own, forwards an account of the Costa Rican policy that evaluates the countrys treatment of refugees from a theoretical standpoint, while also acknowledging the power and significance of such a testimony. COSTA RICAN REFUGEE INTEGRATION ANALYSIS The genesis of Costa Ricas refugee problem may be preliminarily abstracted as a matter of geopolitical positioning. Costa Rica occupied a hazardous place within Central America in the 1980s. The relative stability of Costa Rica was contrasted by the neighboring conflicts in El Salvador, Panama, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras: The 1980s evinced a certain explosion of such geopolitical and ideological tensions in Central America, from which Costa Rica was spared. As Martha Honey notes, the Costa Rica of the 1980s â€Å"appeared to be an oasis of tranquility†[3] It is this status of a certain oasis in Central America, that evidently yielded Costa Ricas refugee problem: as a stable nation, it represented the destination of choice for refugees seeking to avoid war in their native lands. Costa Ricas stability as a source for refugees has continued in the time period since the beginning of the 1980s. Yet the refugee that Costa Rica encounters now is substantially different: Refuge es coming into Costa Rica today tend no longer to be from Central America but instead the vast majority are from Colombia. Many are middle-class, urban professionals.[4] Thus, by no means is the refugee in Costa Rica a homogeneous figure. The wars across Central America in the 1980s that led to such displacement are no longer a significant factor in present Costa Rican refugee policy. The Costa Rican encounter with the phenomenon of the refugee begins in 1980 with increasing hostilities in the neighboring country of El Salvador. The immediate reaction of Costa Ricas treatment of this refugee influx distinguished itself from other nations such as Honduras. Whilst Honduras policy favored the internment of the Salvadorian refugees in camps, Costa Rica from the outset emphasized the process of making the refugee self-sufficient; they sought to sever any dependency of the refugee on the state apparatus itself, while simultaneously integrating the refugee into Costa Rican society. These two approaches immediately evince a lucid difference in treatment. In the case of Honduras, this treatment may be viewed as an isolationist approach, insofar as the site of the camp becomes the home of the refugee it does not represent a zone of inclusion, but rather one of suspension moreover, it is an implicit acknowledgment of Honduras government inability to deal with the phenomeno n of the refugee, placing the refugee in a certain no-mans land, as it waits for the conflict in the home country to cease. In contrast, the Costa Rican emphasis on autonomy and self-sufficiency denotes the acceptance of the refugee immediately into its boundaries. We can abstract this difference in terms of a synchronous thinking and a diachronous thinking. In the case of Costa Rica, the policy does not introduce the phenomenon of two times, i.e., waiting for the war to stop rather, the interruption of the refugee experience is directly addressed, through a minimization of this interruption that is a policy of refugee inclusion in Costa Rica. On the other hand, in the Honduran approach, two times are articulated, a wartime and a non-war time. There is no possible mediation between the times; there is only a case of transition and thus, a passivity on the part of the government that is then transferred to the refugee him/herself this interruption that is the refugee event determines the entire Honduran policy. In essence, Costa Rica attempted to establish the continuity of the refugees’ life, allowing for the possibility of a normalcy to remain in the face of a crisis. Such initial successes of the Costa Rican programme may be attributed to a certain history of human rights discourse that emerges in the country, i.e., that Costa Rica was conducive to internationalism in its support of UN programmes and its own creation of international approaches. This historiographical element is significant to understanding the immediate difference of Costa Rica from its neighbors, as it stresses a historical Costa Rican commitment to human rights. As Alison Brysk notes, Costa Rica qualifies as a global good Samaritan because its record of human rights promotion is enduring and multifaceted, and it makes a meaningful contribution to globally significant initiatives.[5] Hence, Costa Ricas Good Samaritan status is derived from its fidelity to such initiatives on both a regional and global level. Among its contributions, Costa Rica was involved in the peace negotiations that ended three regional civil wars, while also functioning as the seat for the Inter-American C ourt of Human Rights of the Organization of American States (OAS). On the international level, Costa Rica was involved with international organizations such as serving at the initial prepatory conference for the founding of the United Nations, while also initiating the UN Childerns Fund. These historical contributions of Costa Rica may be construed as establishing a certain tradition within Costa Rica that made it more receptive to the specific demands of the refugee influxes that began in the 1980s. Thus, from an ideological perspective, there was nothing in the Costa Rican state ideology that would be adverse to the refugee; rather, the ideology was committed to human rights from its outset. This tradition may help to understand the initial successes of the Costa Rican programme. In the initial stages of the refugee problem in the 1980s, because of such an international tradition of Costa Rican policy, there was no shortage in the country of foreign and international refugee organizations that participated in the alleviation of the crisis. As Basok summarizes these contributions: A number of government and voluntary agencies have participated in refugee settlement [in Costa Rica]. They include local branches of such international organizations as Caritas, the Episcopalian church, and the YMCA. In addition, refugees themselves formed a number of voluntary organizations in the hope of assisting their compatriots. Apart from providing emergency aid to refugees, the UNHCR has also financed most of the refugee urban projects. Financial assistance has been provided by other international NGOS as well.[6] The plurality of non-governmental actors demonstrated a Costa Rican openn ess to the refugee crisis. Moreover, the possibility of refugees themselves forming aid organizations demonstrated a certain autonomy of the refugee within Costa Rica; despite the loss of nationality that is the refugee displacement, the refugees were granted a freedom to organize and assemble regardless of their anomalous status. These international organizations were also complimented by Costa Ricas own approach, which has been termed as the durable solution model, emphasizing integration of refugees into the country of asylum. As an unpublished UNHCR document describes this durable solution model: Self sufficiency projects are the ultimate aim of UNHCR as they allow the refugees to become independent of emergency assistance and be productively integrated in the receiving community. In the under-developed countries with serious unemployment problems, self-sufficiency projects offer the best alternation for the refugees work problem. For the receiving country, these durable solutions are a contribution to the national economy, particularly the projects which include both nationals and refugees.[7] Costa Ricas commitment to what the UNHCR deemed as the most effective program for refugee crisis further explicates the traditional openness of Costa Rica to international consensus, whilst concomitantly identifying Costa Ricas desired integration of refugees. The UNHCRs evaluation further acknowledges the durable solution as beneficial to the new country of the refugee itself: the influx of labour sources provided a boost to the national economy of Costa Rica. Thus, Costa Ricas commitment to the durable solution model may be viewed as both a commitment to international law and the notion of human rights, whilst also a policy decision how to utilize the refugee crisis for the benefit of Costa Rica itself. Nevertheless, what may be termed as Costa Ricas comprehensive solution, insofar as it incorporated the UNHCRs preferred model while simultaneously allowing for the participation of foreign organizations, nevertheless encountered specific problems. Primarily the non-organizational model’s intervention into the refugee problem was problematic: The results, however, were less than satisfactory. In 1985 it became evident to the UNHCR that less than half of the 152 projects registered with government agencies were still active. Most of the others had failed.[8] The infectivity of the multiplicity of organizations according to the quantitative data of the UNHCR tends to suggest that the approach of a strength in numbers, i.e., multiple organizations engaging in the refugee crisis, was unsuccessful primarily because of a lack of cohesion. Inasmuch as the Costa Rican intent was essentially one of no aid is bad aid†, this ultimate failure speaks to a certain consistency needed be tween organizations, in order better to establish links between groups, and affectively address the grounding problem, that of the refugee him/herself. This bureaucratic entanglement between organizations as detrimental to the refugee is easily discernable from the perspective of the refugee him/herself; because a plurality of organizations exists, the refugee is caught in a bureaucratic system, with no connection to the Costa Rican government itself. This serves as an impasse to the desired integration. This collapse of the various international programs led Costa Rica to attempt a more autonomous policy that would be regulated by the government, therein optimistically hoping to marginalize the previous failures through a centralization of refugee policy. This centralization would enable a consistent discourse of the durable solution to emerge in the Costa Rican space. As Ed Mihalkanin notes After the failure of many of the international and domestic refugee projects, the Costa Rican government tried to integrate refugees into already existing jobs.[9] By Costa Rica directly addressing the problem, this focusing of the remit of refugee policy could better serve the goal of integration: as the refugees are located in Costa Rica, the most efficient means towards integration would be to have the government directly involved in the refugee process by opening economic opportunities to the refugee. This shift reflects a certain fundamental ambiguity at the heart of the general theory of refugee policy. While, prima facie, the plurality of non-governmental organizations that operated in Costa Rica to alleviate the suffering of the refugee may be viewed as a logical step, inasmuch as it emphasizes giving aid to refugees in light of any possible limits to the capabilities of the Costa Rican government, this approach simultaneously suspends the notion of an integration into Costa Rican society. That is to say, if integration is the ultimate goal of Costa Rican refugee policy, such integration can only be engendered by the direct intervention of the government itself, as the government is ultimately congruent with Costa Rica. From this perspective, the collapse of the aid programmes emanating from various international sources may be viewed, in actuality, as a step towards a more direct involvement of the Costa Rican government in the refugee problematic, in terms of a more strident form of integration. This strident form would be necessary if the Costa Rican government would become the primary instrument for refugee aid in the nation, as opposed to the organizational plurality. Nevertheless, after the general failure of the international aid programmes, charity organizations, etc., the new Costa Rican government initiative itself faced various de jure issues that prevented the establishing of a greater remit for refugee aid. As Mihalkanin writes, at times Costa Rican laws actually prevented refugee aid, despite any best intentions of the Costa Rican government. This was the case regarding Costa Rican employee law: â€Å"Yet very few work permits were issued since by law only ten percent of a firms workers can be foreigners.†[10] Thus, the attempt to integrate refugees into the Costa Rican labour force already met opposition in a pre-existing law that marginalized the possibility of foreign workers in Costa Rica. As Mihalkanin notes, despite the intent of both the government to integrate the refugees and the employers’ will to aid the refugees by giving them work, this shared movement encountered a double impasse: the de jure situation of the l abour law, coupled with the de facto situation of employers, whom, although giving refuges a workplace, could not register the workers because of the law. Therefore, any type of de jure integration of these refugee workers who were already working in Costa Rica, was not possible because of the law; despite their labour power, and one must conclude, the desire for this labour source, the separation between the de jure and the de facto situation prevented this opportunity at integration. What occurred then is simply a missed opportunity, a miscommunication between government and private sectors, the latter wholly receptive to the influx of refugee workers, but whose hands were metaphorically tied by the Costa Rican law. This problem of the limits of aid in the sphere of labour relations also extends into the basic human rights of Costa Ricans, such as health care: insofar as health care is available to refugees in Costa Rica, access is limited from both a temporal and financial perspective. As a UNHCR report from 2003 noted, â€Å"in Costa Rica, access to social security services is universal, which means that everyone, regardless of nationality, is entitled to health coverage at a very low cost.†[11] Nevertheless, the caveat here is that â€Å"refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to free healthcare cover during their first three months in Costa Rica.†[12] This leads to an immediate problem facing refugees after the three month period of coverage has elapsed; as Gloria Maklouf Weiss, Director of ACAI (Asociacià ³n de Consultores y Asesores Internacionales), a UNHCR partner in Costa Rica recapitulates this problem: â€Å"some refugees are in such economic hardship that they cannot pay even the very small monthly fees.†[13] Thus, considering the situation of the refugee, the three-month time limit appears insufficient for health care coverage. The securing of an employment opportunity in Costa Rica within this same three-month period would have to be a concomitant aim of a programme; otherwise, the benefits of the Costa Rican health care policy are severely limited by the refugees’ inability to generate capital. On this point, the separation of the spheres of employment and healthcare impede the abilities of the refugee to begin a life in Costa Rica; insofar as employment and healthcare are considered as distinct issues, the benefits of healthcare are separated from the refugee labour force. The weakness therefore in this aspect of the policy is not anticipating the contiguity between employment integration and the possibility of health care. It is examples such as these incongruities in the law and policy of Costa Rica itself that failed to provide a comprehensive programme for its refugees. Thus, whilst Costa Ricas position as a stable country remains attractive to refugees in a time of crisis, various gaps in the system prevented a comprehensive plan to address the phenomenon. QUESTIONNAIRE The data in section 2.0 regarding Costa Rica’s history and policy approach to the refugee crisis only provides one side of the picture. This theoretical analysis of Costa Rican refugee policy, considering the constraints on any discourse of this style, is to be supplemented by a questionnaire submitted to four former refugees in Costa Rica. Whilst the sample size of the questionnaire is admittedly small, the necessity of its inclusion rests on a theoretical significance given to the notion of testimony in an effort to verify or contradict the reading provided of Costa Rican refugee policy. The prejudice of the academic discourse is to be alleviated through the survey presentation; thus, the purpose of the questionnaire is based on a theoretical value attached to testimony and the attempt to provide a more complete picture of the refugee policy of Costa Rica. Because of sensitivity to the time concerns of the participants and because of issues with the English language, the que stionnaire was deliberately simple and limited to four questions. QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS While the sample size is admittedly small, and the nature of the questions direct, the data of the questionnaire would seem to indicate a moderate level of satisfaction with the Costa Rican refugee policy. The option for the refugees in Costa Rica appears to be beneficial; the majority of answerers expressed that integration and employment possibilities were available in Costa Rica, whilst also noting the receptivity of the various refugee organizations to the concerns of the refugees. It is germane to note that the questionnaire deliberately avoided inquiring into the personal history of the participants, in respect for ethics and the privacy of the participants. While this may be construed as detracting from the accuracy of the questionnaire, as it brackets out some of the personal histories involved in the participants, the aforementioned ethical position of protecting privacy was taken as paramount. Rather the questionnaire was to function as a cursory testimonial survey of Costa Rican refugee policy, and thus, while no means a complete account, it does indicate that the Costa Rican option for refugees was more positive than it was negative. CONCLUSIONS The difficulty of the refugee problem primarily lies in the problems it engenders vis-à  -vis the traditional structure of the State, which relies for its function on the notion of citizenry. Inasmuch as human rights become an international imperative, the anomalous appearance of the refugee conflicts with the traditional State model. This tension is however a source for the production of new approaches to the refugee problematic. Costa Rica’s position in the ravaged Central America of the 1980s placed the nation into a role of a paradigm case for refugee policy. The Costa Rican approach must be commended at the outset for its commitment to human rights and the welfare of the refugees. The intent of the Costa Rican policy therefore must be viewed in a positive light. However, the complications that arose from the refugee crisis provide valuable data and source material for the possible improvements of refugee policy. Costa Rica’s acceptance of foreign, international and non-governmental charitable organizations to alleviate the crisis, whilst helping the refugees on the â€Å"terrain†, actually hindered the successful integration of these refugees into Costa Rican society, inasmuch as these organizations, as non-Costa Rican entities, actually created a further distance between the refugee and the Costa Rican state. Moreover, once the majority of these organizations had failed, the Costa Rican government was left to complete the so-called â€Å"durable solution.† The impasses to the â€Å"durable solution† may be traced to employment and economic laws of the Costa Rican state, laws which were unable to successfully meld with the desired â€Å"durable solution.† It is various de jure factors, despite the overall Costa Rican government intent and the intent of the private sector to integrate refugees through employment, which hindered the affectivity of this solution. Nevertheless, Costa Rica is still referred in some academic literature as an excellent example of a refugee policy. This seems to be supported by the anonymous questionnaire that was a part of our research; the questionnaire, while its sample size is admittedly small, nonetheless offers a certain support to the notion that Costa Rica was more effective than not regarding the refugee experience. Thus, whilst there are problematics in the policy of Costa Rican refugee integration, it is nevertheless a paradigm from which numerous positives can be drawn, whilst also providing a better insight into the impasses that may present themselves in such a policy: hopefully these cases, will yield a better approach to the difficult notion of the refugee in the future. BIBLIOGRAPHY Giorgio Agamben, â€Å"We Refugees†, accessed at: Tanya Basok, Keeping Heads Above Water: Salvadorean Refugees in Costa Rica McGill Queen’s Press: 1993. Alison Brysk, â€Å"Global Good Samaritans? Human Rights Foreign Policy in Costa Rica†, in: Global Governance, Vol. 11, 2005. Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s, University of Florida Press: 1994. Ed Mihalkanin, â€Å"Refugee Aid, Displaced Persons, and Development in Central America† in: Refugee Aid and Development, Greenwood Press: 1993. UNHCR, â€Å"Health Fair in Costa Rica gives refugees much needed medical care†, March 6, 2006, accessed at:> 1 [1] Giorgio Agamben, â€Å"We Refugees†, accessed at: [2] Tanya Basok, Keeping Heads Above Water: Salvadorean Refugees in Costa Rica, pg. Xvii. [3] Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s, pg. 4. [4] UNHCR, â€Å"Health Fair in Costa Rica gives refugees much needed medical care†, March 6, 2006, accessed at:> [5] Alison Brysk, â€Å"Global Good Samaritans? Human Rights Foreign Policy in Costa Rica†, in: Global Governance, Vol. 11, 2005. [6] Basok, pg. Xviii. [7] Basok, pg. Vi. [8] Basok, pg. Xviii. [9] Ed Mihalkanin, â€Å"Refugee Aid, Displaced Persons, and Development in Central America† in: Refugee Aid and Development, pg. 90. [10] Mihalkanin, pg. 90. [11] UNHCR, accessed at> [12] UNHCR, accessed at> [13] UNHCR, accessed at>

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Ethics in Machiavellis The Prince Essay -- Machiavelli The Prince

Ethics in Machiavelli's The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was an Italian statesman and political philosopher. He was employed on diplomatic missions as defence secretary of the Florentine republic, and was tortured when the Medici returned to power in 1512. When he retired from public life he wrote his most famous work, The Prince (1532), which describes the means by which a leader may gain and maintain power. The Prince has had a long and chequered history and the number of controversies that it has generated is indeed surprising. Almost every ideology has tried to appropriate it for itself - as a result everyone from Clement VII to Mussolini has laid claim to it. Yet there were times when it was terribly unpopular. Its author was seen to be in league with the devil and the connection between 'Old Nick' and Niccolo Machiavelli was not seen as merely nominal. The Elizabethans conjured up the image of the 'murdering Machiavel' [1] and both the Protestants and the later Catholics held his book responsible for evil things. Any appraisal of the book therefore involved some ethical queasiness. Modern scholarship may have removed the stigma of devilry from Machiavelli, but it still seems uneasy as to his ethical position. Croce [2] and some of his admirers like Sheldon Wolin [3] and Federic Chabod [4] have pointed out the existence of an ethics-politics dichotomy in Machiavelli. Isaiah Berlin [5] postulates a system of morality outside the Christian ethical schema. Ernst Cassirer [6] calls him a cold technical mind implying that his attitude to politics would not necessarily involve ethics. And Macaulay [7] sees him as a man of his time going by the actual ethical positions of Quattrocento Italy. In the face of s... ...erlin, Isaiah. The Question of Machiavelli. New York Review, November 4, 1971. 6. Cassirer, Ernst. Implications of the New Theory of the State (from The Myth Of The State) 7. Macaulay, Thomas Babington. Machiavelli 8. Berlin, Isaiah. Ibid. 9. Machiavelli. Il Principe Ch XVIII 'Yet as I have said before, not to diverge from the good if he can avoid it, but to know how to set about it if compelled.' Trans. Marriott. The Project Gutenberg Internet Edition. 10. Erasmus. The Education of a Prince, quoted in J. R. Hale, Renaissance Europe 1480-1520 p. 309 11. Hale p. 308 12. Macaulay. Ibid. 13. Whitfield, J. H. Big Words, Exact Meanings. 14. Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics. [trans. Sir David Ross] 15. Machiavelli. Discourses on Livy Ch XXVII, Project Gutenberg Internet Edition

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Trench Coat Mafia And Society :: essays research papers

The Trench coat Mafia Opinion MANY FACTORS CAUSED OUTBURST OF VIOLENCE There is no single factor that caused the outburst of violence on 20th April 1999, in Littleton, Colorado. Blaming a single factor as the cause of the Columbine High School massacre is as ludicrous as a nation blaming an economic crisis on one person alone. There were many contributing factors that led to this massacre, and with that, an array of warning signs, all of which were ignored by most people. If people were searching for a sole factor to blame, it would be most appropriate to blame the lack of awareness of the Columbine High School community. The killers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, talked about their love of guns openly at school and wrote death poetry during their English classes. Can't anyone see that such behaviour can lead to nothing but darkness? The group Harris and Klebold belonged to, the Trench coat Mafia, told classmates of their plans to carry out a massacre at school, but fellow students jeered and dismissed their comments as empty threats. The preferred attire of the Trench coat Mafia were black trench coats, sunglasses and army berets. This code of dress was designed to stand out from the rest of the students, and to attract attention to them. This was not a wise decision made by the group as it attracted more abuse from students and became clearly recognised as 'misfits'. This worsened the communication gap between the group and other students. The school should have identified this problem and attempt to rectify the situation. The group's alienation from the rest of the school community made most people think that they were outcasts and soon became inferior and the butt of jokes. This proves that bullying cannot be denied a part in the cause of this massacre. Bullying lowered the self-esteem of Harris and Klebold, who eventually resorted to violence, thinking that it would be the solution to their problems. However, If the 'misfits' were not jeered at but were accepted, they would not be misfits, and peaceful co-existence as civilised human beings would have been achieved. 'Seek and ye shall find'; stated Sophocles. Harris and Klebold did accordingly and proved this statement true during their search for weapons. However strict the government make the gun laws, there are always ways for minors to obtain weapons. It would be unfair if all of the blame was laid onto the lack of gun control.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The sport of Paintball Essay -- essays research papers

The Sport of Paintball There you are. You’re hiding behind a hastily constructed bunker made to protect yourself from enemy fire. You can hear the enemy firing on your position, and you can feel the shots screaming above your head. The firing ceases for a moment. You pop out, fire off a few rounds, and duck back in; but as you are going back in the shots start up again, and you feel the rounds whizzing past your head and ear. One catches your sleeve. You glance down. No damage. Suddenly you have a fellow fighter there in your bunker with you. He tells you he’s going to try to take the enemy bunker out. Before you can stop him, he charges out of the bunker, gun blazing. A burst of fire, and a cry. You glance out, and see that your teammate has been hit. Anger sweeps over you. You check your ammunition; close to full. You make a conscious decision to take them out. Taking a breath, you burst from your haven at speeds you did not know you could achieve. The enemy is surprised by this boldness. T hey doubted you, and are now caught off guard. You fire upon the exposed enemy. You see one of your shots find it’s mark, and he goes down. There is one more. Maintaining fire to keep him pinned down, you sweep past his bunker, and place three shots in his chest as you pass. You are victorious. Now, where are you? Are you in Iraq? No. Are you in Vietnam in the past? No. You are in the average American town, and you are out with your buddies live a game of paintball. You are still pumped up on adrenaline, and eager for the next game. One may wonder, what is paintball? Paintball is a sport similar to laser tag but with live ammunition. Players are given a paintball gun, a protective mask, a gas source, and usually some spare paintballs. A paintball gun, also called a marker, uses a pressurized gas source to propel a marble-sized ball out of the marker at anywhere from 250 to 300 feet per second (fps). This ball is fired at another player who is (or at least should be) similarly equipped. If the ball strikes the player, the ball breaks, and the gelatinous, colored filling leaves a bright mark on the player. This is called being â€Å"marked†. The player who was hit is usually out of the game at this point. Some people play multiple hit rules, such as three-hits-and-you’re-out, or scenarios like that. This is a basic overview of the sport of paintball. Now we shall look at the a... ..., country-boy Ritchie White, captured all twelve flags without firing a single shot! Paintball pioneer Bob Gurnsey saw the potential of what went on that day in the woods of New Hampshire, so he went on to secure direct sources of the necessary products from the companies that supplied paintballs and markers to forestry and agricultural markets. He then marketed the first paintball game field franchises under the banner of the "National Survival Game". In 1983, the first official N.S.G. Paintball tournament was held, and the die was cast. Some of the biggest manufacturers include companies like Tippmann Pneumatics, Smart Parts, Worr Games Products (WGP), WDP, Dye, V-Force, JT, and Brass Eagle. Most companies make a full range of products for the industry, as to be competitive. Paintball is the fastest growing sport in the nation. It is easy to see why. It is competitive, team-building, family oriented, athletic, fun, and first and for most safe. Paintball appeals to men and women, young and old. It began with a few friends in the woods, and now is a multi-billion dollar family worldwide industry. The sport of paintball is one that will be around for a very long time.

Corruption in Malaysia

I have oral test with my group on next weak and I have found this text on internet? Composition of Forum Example Essay Title: Corruption Chairman of the Forum: greetings. The teachers and classmates. As of this morning we are thankful for another opportunity to discuss social problems which I think is more chronic in the absence of drastic measures taken to address them. Without delay time, let me introduce the panel members, which left me was his right split B and C are the relative Title of the forum this morning is â€Å"the problem of corruption inMalaysia. † Next, I call our first panel, the relative B provides definitions of corruption and its characteristics. Brother B: hi and thank you chairman. Web-based anti-corruption commission (MAC), corruption is an act that involves giving and receiving of money or specific goods with intent to prevent the action taken or receive privileges. Corrupt practices involving all levels of society whether in public or private sector. W hich kind of support will be in the form of material, such as money, cars and houses, and forms of entertainment such as women.Brother C: According to the Prime Minister, Dates Series Abdullah Madam Bawd described the corruption as a cancer and if left unchecked will cause a government collapse and thereby tarnish the image in the eyes of the international. Chairman: We have been clear on the issue of corruption. Now what are the opinions of our panel members about the causes of corruption? Brother B: My chairman. Let me put in a bit. The main cause is peer influence. When I saw my colleagues being corrupt and enjoy the luxuries of life without any action, a person would be tempted to accept bribes.Stress at work is able to interfere with feelings, especially if senior officers were also involved. Without thinking, one that will be easily affected and were corrupt because they want to quickly enjoy the luxury of living in this mortal world. Chairman: C Maybe you want to add an opini on on the cause of corruption? Brother C: Chairman, I agree with you B. In addition, the law in our country are causing many poor people are not afraid of the punishment imposed.For example, legal action is considered a light punishment to the culprits of corruption as impaired with the number of corruption are taken by them have given a negative outlook on the capabilities of our Judicial system to address this issue. In addition, the lighter sentence is said to be motivated to certain parties to take the risk of corruption because the recipient is aware that coffee money they are able to enjoy Chairman: Thank you C, I hope we can all work together to prevent corruption and do not embarkation rooted in the minds of the people of Malaysia. Moreover, the problem is more serious.What is his relation to B steps to overcome? Brother B: Government should Meghan attitude of civil servants and the private for more trust and responsibility. The slogan â€Å"Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy † introduced by former Prime Minister Tuna Dry. Empathic Mohammad should be embraced by all public and private sector. Service counters have been introduced in all government offices to avoid the practice of giving and receiving â€Å"coffee money. † Bureaucracy should also be reduced or eliminated to create more efficient and effective. This was never raised by the Honorable Prime Minister in his speech in Parliament recently.Chairman: Thank you B. It appears that you have something to C is pronounced. Please. Brother C: The government should enforce laws for the public aware of how dangerous and serious problem of corruption, if not eradicated, and are confined to national security. Penalties are more severe Jail terms provided in the Anti- Corruption Commission (MAC) 2009 Parliament passed the new recently slogan can be daunting. The court also suggested that the maximum punishment. More power to act against people who refuse to cooperate den the MAC also can change the attitude of the hemp that has refused to cooperate.Whistler's should be rewarded. They should also get protection from the authorities. Chairman: Thank you C, and I think we are at the end of the forum. In summary, I think the problem of corruption in our country is a serious problem and needs to be addressed immediately. Therefore, I urge all parties to helping the government address this problem. In addition, let me express my gratitude to the highest members of the panel. However, what could I do not allow us time to talk further. Thank you. Is there any wrong word or sentences in this essays? Please help me.. BTW I'm from Malaysia

Monday, September 16, 2019

Minimum wage essay Essay

Minimum wage has been a very controversial topic. Nowadays people just can’t survive on minimum wage. Prices are rising but yet the pay is still the same. How do they expect us to survive on eight dollars and twenty five cents? Minimum wage workers in Chicago land locations had joined others across the country for a one-day strike, which was held August 29, 2013 outside the ROCK N ROLL McDonalds in the River North neighborhood, demanding their wage to be at least $15.00 an hour. There was a worker there named Tyree Johnson who said he has been working on McDonalds for a total of 21 years and still earning a total of eight dollars and twenty five cents an hour. He states â€Å"Every time I would ask for a raise they would just tell me you shouldn’t have joined that union, were not giving you any raise†. The workers who had gathered up there said that they were tired on choosing between paying the rent or paying the groceries. Another minimum wage worker named Dejun Jackson says it takes him three jobs to raise a family. He gets up at 4:30am to start his shift at 5:45am. He ends his first job around 1 O’clock and has to be in his second job around 1:15. He does not end his second shift until 9 or 9:30pm. He states he has no time to see his kids except the weekends for the same reason that he has two jobs. Between his two jobs he works a total of 70 hours a week. Within a year he makes an average of $50,000. Dejun Jackson is also in school hoping one day he would be able to work just one shift and spend more time with his family. But just by having just one job he wouldn’t be able to make it through since one job helps him pay the pills and the other the cost of his school. I agree that people cannot live on minimum wage since the cost of living has gone up drastically. This has always been a conflict and will continue to be unless they raise minimum wage. The type of life we are living now days won’t simply just get us through by working on minimum wage. People have things to pay for example rent, food transportation, clothes, bills; school etc. People that get pay minimum wage are usually on government assistance which means everybody who is paying taxes are actually paying for the food stamps or any type of services that they are receiving from the government. It would be better if the companies would just pay their workers a decent amount of salary instead of other people having to pay for whatever the company is not paying them. The authors’ argument is very logical since it states why people can’t survive on minimum wage. This makes people have two jobs just too sustain a family. People wouldn’t be able to make through just by having one job, since the cost of living has gone up drastically.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Research design and methodology Essay

Despite the fact that the complete genome of the organism was already sequenced, the specific genes coding for the needed enzymes to form pores in the host cell were still unidentified. With this lack of information, this study is formulated and designed. Culturing of B. bacteriovorus HD100 on prey dependent and prey independent set-ups: Predatory (HD) cultures of B. bacteriovorus HD100 will be grown on E. coli in Ca2_-HEPES buffer at 30Â °C, with shaking at 200 rpm (8). Escherichia coli ML35 and E. coli W7-M5 (10) will be used as the prey throughout the experiments. Escherichia coli ML35 will be cultured in nutrient broth (Difco Laboratories), and E. coli W7-M5, a lysine and DAP auxotroph, will be cultured in nutrient broth supplemented with 0. 2 mM lysine and 0. 1 mM DAP at 37Â °C with shaking at 200 rpm. Prey-independent HI strains will be plated on rich peptone-yeast extract (PY) medium (8). Synchronous cultures: Synchronous cultures will be used for performing various experiments as described below. Briefly, fresh bdellovibrios will be added to prey cells in HM buffer (3 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N’-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-1 mM CaCl. LQ. One mM of MgCl2 will be adjusted to pH 7. 6 using NaOH (10). The organisms will be grown until a final concentration of 1010 bdellovibrios per ml and 5 x 109 E. coli per ml is reached. For proper aeration, volumes will be kept to ? 20% of the flask’s volume and incubated at 30Â °C with shaking at 400 rpm. Synchronous cultures will be examined at intervals for attachment and penetration with a Nikon model L-Ke microscope (Nippon Kogaku Inc. ) equipped with phase-contrast optics and a Nikon model AF camera. Time course Microarray analysis. Time course Microarray analysis will be performed to identify the genes to be expressed during the entry phase, specifically during pore formation on the host cell membrane of B. bacterovorus H100. Microarray slides of B. bacteriovorus H100 will be ordered from Advanced Throughput, Inc Services. Total cellular RNA will be extracted from B. bacteriovorus H100 cells at entry phase using the RNeasy mid kit (Qiagen). The RNA of the organism will also be extracted during the other stages of infection. This will serve as a reference for comparison of the genes expressed and not expressed at the desired stage. Complementary DNA synthesis, fragmentation, labeling, hybridization, staining and washing will be performed according to the Affymetrix B. bacteriovorus H100 GeneChip array expression analysis protocol (Affymetrix). Briefly, cDNA will be synthesized from RNA using Superscript II (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA will be removed by alkaline treatment and subsequent neutralization. Complementary DNA will be purified with QIAquick PCR purification columns (Qiagen). Purified cDNA will be fragmented by DNase I (Amersham) at 37Â °C for 10 min followed by end labeling with biotinddUTP, using an Enzo BioArray terminal labeling kit (Affymetrix), at 37Â °C for 60 min. Hybridization will be performed in an Affymetrix GeneChip hybridization Oven 640. Washing and staining will be performed using an Affymetrix Fluidics Station 400. Arrays will be scanned with an Agilent GeneArray Scanner G2500A. GeneChip scans will be initially analyzed using the Affymetrix Microarray Suite 5. 1 software, from which PivotData tables will be exported. Raw data from the PivotData Tables will be analyzed in GeneSpring software version 6 (Silicon Genetics), using the parameters suggested by Silicon Genetics for analysis of Affymetrix Microarrays. Real-time PCR: Real-time PCR using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-time PCR system will be performed to confirm microarray results. RNA will be extracted from B. bacteriovorus H100 at initial phases of predatory life cycle up to entry phase as described above. RNA will be reverse transcribed into cDNA and simultaneously labelled using the iScript One-step RT-PCR kit with SYBR Green (Biorad). RT-PCR reactions will also be performed to amplify cDNA of housekeeping genes (identified from micro array studies) for normalization of fluorescence values. Identifying the specific hydrolytic enzymes of B. bacteriovorus which are involved in pore formation on host cell membrane. Many experiments showed that B. bacteriovorus H100 releases hydrolytic enzymes during predatory life cycle. According to Thomashow and Ritterberg, glycanases and lipopolysaccharideases are required for pore formation in the prey’s peptidoglycan and LPS layers respectively. The glycanase and/or peptidase could be responsible for weakening the peptidoglycan layer of the prey and thereby responsible for permitting conversion of the substrate cell to a spherical shape (10). Tudor et al. proposed another model for penetration. According to them peptidase is responsible for pore formation but not glycanase (11). Specific enzymes involved in pore formation are not known. The genes identified from the time course micro array technique will be mutated as described previously using suicide vector pSSK10. Resulting mutants will be complemented by using vector pMMB206 (8). Mutants will be analysed for the specific enzymes (using 2D-gel electrophoresis) and their actions on host cell i. e, as a glycanase, LPSase or peptidase will be observed by radio labelling experiments (10). Wild-type B. bacteriovorus H100 and complemented strains will be used as controls. Radio labeling experiments: Escherichia. coli W7-M5, auxotroph for lysine and DAP and cannot metabolize glucosamine, will be radiolabelled as described previously (9,10). Peptide portion of E.coli W7-M5 peptidoglycan will be labelled with [3H] DAP and the lipopolysaccharides and glycan portions of the peptidoglycan will be labeled with [3H]glucosamine. Various mutants and wild-type strains will be tested for predation using this radiolabelled strain. Solubilisation of glucosamine and DAP from labelled prey peptidoglycan will be measured as described previously (11). Briefly, samples taken at intervals will be precipitated with an equal volume of cold 10% trichloroacetic acid for 30 min followed by centrifugation. Resulting supernatants will be assayed for soluble radioactivity in a scintillation counter (Rackbeta II). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: The hydrolytic enzymes released by B. bacteriovorus H100 during its predatory life cycle will be analyzed by performing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Sample preparation for 2D-gel electrophoresis: Escherichia coli ML35 cells will be challenged with B. bacteriovorus H100 wild-type as well as the mutant strain. Culture fluid will be drawn from synchronous cultures during attachment and entry phases of B. bacteriovorus H100. Culture fluid will be centrifuged to discard any cell debris. Proteins in the supernatant will be precipitated using cold acetone. The precipitated proteins will be separated by centrifugation. The precipitated pellet will be air dried and will be dissolved in rehydration solution (8M urea, 2% CHAPS {3-[3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate}, 18 mM DTT, 0. 5% IPG buffer pH range 4-7; Amersham Biosciences), plus a trace of bromophenol blue. Sample protein concentrations will be determined using the BCA protein assay (Pierce). Resulting protein pellet will be subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Market Segmentation Notes

Definition of ‘Market Segmentation' A marketing term  referring to  the aggregating of prospective buyers into groups (segments) that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action. Market segmentation enables companies to target different categories of consumers who perceive the full value of certain products and services differently from one another. Generally three criteria  can be used to identify  different market segments: 1) Homogeneity (common needs within segment) 2) Distinction (unique from other groups) 3) Reaction (similar response to market) Investopedia explains ‘Market Segmentation'For example, an athletic footwear company might have market segments for basketball players and long-distance runners. As distinct groups, basketball players and long-distance runners will respond to very different advertisements. Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers who have common needs and applications for the relevant goods and services. Depending on the specific characteristics of the product, these subsets may be divided by criteria such as age and gender, or other distinctions, like location or income.Marketing campaigns can then be designed and implemented to target these specific customer segments. Why Segment? One of the main reasons for using market segmentation is to help companies to better understand the needs of a specific customer base. Mass marketing assumes that all customers are the same and will respond to the same advertising. By looking at ways in which potential customer groups are different from each other, the marketing message can be better targeted to the needs and wants of those people.Often, dividing consumers by clearly defined criteria will help the company identify other applications for their products that may not have been obvious before. These revelations often help the company target a larger audience in that same dem ographic classification, improving market share among a specific base. Segmenting the market can also serve to identify smaller groups of people who make up their own, previously unknown subsets, further improving the overall efficiency of the company's marketing efforts.Segmentation Strategies According to experts, in order to be a good market segment, a group should meet five criteria: 1. It should be possible to identify and measure it, 2. it should be big enough to be worth the effort, 3. it should be easy to reach it, 4. it should not change quickly, 5. and it should be responsive. Market segmentation strategies that meet these criteria can cover wide range of consumer characteristics. Subsets may be defined by basic demographics like age, race, or gender, for example.Other qualities, like educational background or income can also be used, as can location. Some of the potentially most powerful variables by which to segment a market are behavioral ones, including social class, l ifestyle, and interests. In most scenarios, there will be at least a few established customers who fall into more than one category, but marketing strategists normally allow for this phenomenon. In fact, the overlap in criteria among consumers often leads to additional segmentation and requires adjusted marketing strategies.A marketing plan that targets people who fall into several groups — like women over 30 who earn a high income, for example — may be more successful than one that focuses on just one limited characteristic. Other Benefits Along with playing a role in the development of new marketing approaches, market segmentation can also help a company identify ways to enhance customer loyalty with existing clients. As part of the process of identifying specific groups within the larger client base, the company will often run surveys which encourage customers to suggest ways of improving the company's products or services.This may lead to changes in packaging or ot her similar cosmetic changes that do not necessarily impact the core product, but sometimes making a few simple changes in the appearance sends a clear message to consumers that recognizing their needs is as important to the company as making sales. This demonstration of good might go a long way to strengthen the ties between the consumer and the producer. Market segmentation is not only beneficial to the manufacturer or retailer, but can also have benefits to a consumer as well.People in a particular market segment may get special deals on products as the company focuses on that group, or find that those products are available more widely. When a company responds to consumer feedback, it can mean that those people get changes in composition or packaging that better meet the user's needs. Disadvantages of Market Segmentation One of the biggest disadvantages of this marketing technique is the expense. A great deal of research often needs to be done to correctly identify those subsets that are most important for a company, and this takes time and money.Once the key subsets are identified, different marketing messages usually need to be developed for each. In addition, changing the appearance of a product based on which segment it is being sold to adds to the production costs. If the market isn't segmented effectively, then all this money will be wasted. When the market segments that are identified are too narrow, it may be difficult for a company to be profitable. Niche marketing can work for some industries, but if the tastes of that subset change or a stronger competitor enters the field, a company that has focused too much on the one segment can lose its customer base quickly.Targeting smaller segments also means that potential consumers outside of those groups may be ignored and their business lost. The Concept of Market Segmentation Market segmentation is the division of a market into different groups of customers with distinctly similar needs and product/s ervice requirements. Or to put it another way, market segmentation is the division of a mass market into identifiable and distinct groups or segments, each of which have common characteristics and needs and display similar responses to marketing actions.Market segmentation was first defined as ‘a condition of growth when core markets have already been developed on a generalised basis to the point where additional promotional expenditures are yielding diminishing returns’ (Smith, 1956). There is now widespread agreement that they form an important foundation for successful marketing strategies and activities (Wind, 1978; Hooley and Saunders, 1993). The purpose of market segmentation is to leverage scarce resources; in other words, to ensure that the elements of the marketing mix, price, distribution, products and promotion, are designed to meet particular needs of different customer groups.Since companies have finite resources it is not possible to produce all possible p roducts for all the people, all of the time. The best that can be aimed for is to provide selected offerings for selected groups of people, most of the time. This process allows organizations to focus on specific customers’ needs, in the most efficient and effective way. As Beane and Ennis (1987) eloquently commented, ‘a company with limited resources needs to pick only the best opportunities to pursue’. The market segmentation concept is related to product differentiation.If you aim at different market segments, you might adapt different variations of your offering to satisfy those segments, and equally if you adapt different versions of your offering, this may appeal to different market segments. Since there is less competition, your approach is less likely to be copied and so either approach will do. An example in the area of fashion retailing might be if you adapt your clothing range so that your skirts are more colourful, use lighter fabrics, and a very shor t hemline, for instance, this styling is more likely to appeal more to younger women.If alternatively, you decide to target older women, then you might need to change the styling of your skirts to suit them by using darker, heavier fabrics, with a longer hemline. This is exactly what Marks and Spencer (M&S) did to attract a younger female shopper into their M&S stores and compete more directly with Next and Debenhams for share of this market. The company launched a range of female clothing called Per Una, and three years on the fashion range has been a huge success reportedly generating annual sales of nearly ? 230 m—more than 10 per cent of the total womenswear sales at M&S.If you start by adapting new product variants, you are using a product differentiation approach. If you start with the customer’s needs, you are using a market segmentation approach. This is illustrated more clearly in Figure 6. 2 using offering rather than product to indicate that the same concept may apply to a service. A relational marketing perspective would replace the marketing mix—the 4Ps —either with the 7Ps (see Chapter 15) or with a discussion of the need to design, develop, and deliver the customer experience (see Chapter 17).The concept of market segmentation was first proposed as an alternative market development technique in imperfectly competitive markets, that is, in markets where there are relatively few competitors selling an identical product. Where there are lots of competitors selling identical products, market segmentation and product differentiation produce similar results as competitors imitate your strategic approach more quickly and product differentiation approaches meet market segment needs more closely. With an increasing proliferation of tastes in modern society, consumers have increased disposable incomes.As a result, marketers have sought to design product and service offerings around consumer demand (market segmentation) more tha n around their own production needs (product differentiation) and they use market research to inform this process (see Market Insight 6. 1 and Chapter 4). Segmentation criteria for consumer markets Segmenting criteria for goods and services markets Kotler and Armstrong define market segmentation as â€Å"dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviour and who might require separate products or marketing mixes† (Armstrong and Kotler, 2005: 54).

Friday, September 13, 2019

Company profile report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Company profile report - Essay Example For instance, it has sponsored various global events such as world cup, Olympic, premier league, NBA and other sports. The company’s history traces back to the year 1886. Out of personal curiosity, a pharmacist based in Atlanta, Dr. John S. Pemberton created a soft drink that soda kiosks sold. The innovation involved creation of a flavored syrup, mixed with carbonated water and sampled for fitness. The pharmacist’s bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson, later named the beverage and went ahead to design its trademark that is still used distinctively today. Within the succeeding two years, prior to his death in 1888, Dr. Pemberton sold out portions of the business to various shareholders. Majority of these sales went to then Atlanta businessperson, Asa G. Candler. Asa’s leadership expanded distribution of the beverage to beyond Atlanta. Soda fountains grew rapidly beyond Atlanta and in 1894; Joseph Biedenharn established the first bottling machinery in Mississippi. The growing demand for Coca-Cola and the desire for the product’s portability motivated him to become the first to bottle the beverage. Five years later, three businesspersons, Benjamin Thomas, Joseph Whitehead and John Lupton, secured bottling and selling rights for Coca-Cola. They established the first-ever large scale bottling system in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Early bottlers were constrained by product imitation by competitors and absence of packaging consistency. Stiff competition led to unanimous agreement among the bottlers to a distinctive bottling of the beverage. In 1916, they approved the design of the contoured bottle. The bottle set the brand aside from the competitors and remained so until its trade marking in 1977. Adverts of the product existed as early as the 1970s. It is during then that the brand’s advert depended on and or drew from funs, friends and even memorable moments. The company also had its first computer

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Strategic Objective of Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Strategic Objective of - Essay Example Other competitors include Tesco, Wal-Mart’s ASDA, and HMV’s online shopping. Â  The strongest competitor, however, remains eBay and Amazon needs to extend its product mix further. Wal-Mart and Tesco are also major competitors because of the wider customer base that these stores serve owing to the physical as well as online retail outlets. Â  Although the online business model greatly facilitates as e-commerce uses the uniform standard of e-commerce and technical expertise yet, on the other hand, Amazon has to consider the different laws in the countries it operates in. Â  Further, the case study states that the increase in annual disposable income will reach to US$5,000 and 617 million households will have access to the internet retailing option, out of which 143 million will be from the Asia Pacific. Â  There has been a change in consumer lifestyles which entails that consumers now prefer convenience because of the busy lifestyles and the hassle of going to different retail outlets for different things, they prefer buying from one retail outlet. Â  Shopping online means there are fewer car fumes, fewer carbon emissions and fewer impacts of global warming and pollution hence it is widely in acceptance to the global standards of environmental protection. Â  The customer database is maintained so that customers are provided with greater interactivity in the form of recommending similar products to customers, offering reviews by other users and online sales staff. Â  

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Benefits of a Private School Education Research Paper

Benefits of a Private School Education - Research Paper Example According to the research paper "Benefits of a Private School Education" findings, many public schools which are located in affluent areas can be just as focused and just as well funded as private schools; it is in the urban areas where the most differences can be seen. Private schools also generally have fewer incidences of drugs, dropouts, and violence, most possibly due to the increased level of commitment of parents who send their children to private schools to have every advantage. Private schools have far fewer disciplinary issues to contend with, and the number play a very significant role. With fewer students, there are going to be fewer problems, but there are other reasons as well. Since private schools are not required to accept students or retain them, they can simply expel disruptive students. Only those unerringly meeting their standards both academically and behaviorally are benefited to stay. Public schools are not as privileged since public education is considered an entitlement. Further, since parents are aware that they pay for their children’s tuition, then they also play a part in making their children behave and do school work. Students in private schools are more focused on particular projects and school activities because of the diversity in the curriculum and so they tend to become well-balanced individuals. There are far fewer reports of drug abuse and violence per student in private schools. Public schools also tend to deal with students as a whole, rather that on an individual basis.