Friday, February 21, 2020

Critically discuss the view that gender is relevant to the study of Essay

Critically discuss the view that gender is relevant to the study of INTELLIGENCE. Ground your answer in theory and illustrate w - Essay Example However, since other variables (age, socio-cultural, and environmental factors, etc.) may also affect brain activity and behavior, the amount of certainty for the differences in cognitive ability between genders base on the innate neuroanatomical brain structure pose complexity for the researchers in measuring individual’s intelligence. To begin with, clinical/educational psychologist Richard Pratt (2009) defined human intelligence as a very special mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience, and it is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smartness, but rather but rather reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings. Academic achievement is one of the most widely accepted aspects of life that reflects intelligence and because achievement is expected to accompany intelligence, a test that correlates with achievements has some evidence that it is measuring intelligence (Hersen, 2004, p. 26). IQ (Intelligent Quotient) test generally measures cognitive ability in the form of intelligence assessment tools. It attempts to measure the individual’s intellectual functioning or the basic ability to understand and assimilate the world and how this knowledge is being applied in life. Various qualities such as factual knowledge, short-term memory, abstract reasoning, visual-spatial abilities, and common sense are measured by IQ test (Rich, n.d.). Commonly-used IQ test tools that provide verbal and nonverbal assessments of intelligence are Stanford-Binet test, Wechsler Scales, and SAT (scholastic assessment test). However, SAT has been criticized for the possible effects of gender bias (Santrock, 2005). In connection to measuring intelligence among individuals, whether gender plays a significant factor that may predict one’s cognitive ability edge has been an interesting issue subjected under many investigations. Various studies were made in different countries all over the world to find any significant difference between the performances of both genders. In Turkey, one study to determine significant gender differences in academic performance among undergraduate students in a large university was conducted in Turkey by Dayioglu and Turut-Asik (2004). This study was based on three indicators; university entrance scores, performance in the English preparatory school, and performance (based on cumulative grade point average or CGPA) in the program where the student is majoring in. Results showed a gender gap in favor of male students in terms of university entrance score, as well as in the performance in English preparatory school. However, female students outperformed their male counterparts in the program where they major in based on CGPA. The authors concluded that despite their lower university entrance scores and under-representation i n most departments, female undergraduate students outperform the males during their college years. Derived results have implications on the gender segregation by fields of study to open and encourage female students to get into lucrative study fields as the study have shown their competence in terms of

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Disease Genetic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Disease Genetic - Essay Example Genetic diseases are caused by gene mutations, genetic and environmental factors, and chromosomal errors (NG, Zazove, Sobel. Genes are a part of DNA, which carry codes for proteins, responsible for performing vital functions in the body. Any alteration of the gene is called mutation. It distorts the structure of proteins they encode, disrupting their function and causing diseases. Single-gene disorders results from mutation in a single gene. Multiple gene mutations coupled with environmental factors lead to multi-factorial disorders. Another cause of genetic disorders is chromosomal errors. Chromosomes are structures that carry DNA and genes. Errors such as change in the number of chromosomes cause genetic diseases. An excess or lack of chromosomes results in inappropriate numbers of genes which eventually affects bodily functions. Also, at times, parts of chromosomes are missing or transfer between chromosomes, which lead to diseases. Moreover, mutations can occur in the chromosomes of mitochondria; organelles responsible for cellular respiration, and cause problems such as