Monday, May 25, 2020

Type 2 Diabetes Results From A Combination Of Genetic And...

Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors (, (2013). Although diabetes may run in the family, the risk is greatly increased when associated with lifestyle factors such as not enough physical activity, unhealthy diet, high blood pressure, over weight and obesity and extra body weight that is carried around the waste (, 2013). All these cause the body to be unable to make enough insulin. If beta cells don’t produce enough insulin, or the body doesn’t respond to the insulin that is present, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body, leading to diabetes (Shuldiner, 2014). When blood sugar is high insulin is released by†¦show more content†¦Blood glucose is normally maintained between 70 mg and 110 mg. Blood glucose levels below 70mg, denote the situation of hypoglycemia. Although blood glucose levels of 110mg can be normal, this is only the case if a meal has been taken within 2 to 3 hours. A blood glucose level of 180mg or more, is termed hyperglycemia. Diagnosis is made if blood glucose levels are above 200mg after drinking a sugar-water drink (Norman, 1997). Type 2 diabetes can be controlled through healthy diet and regular exercise. However some people with type 2 diabetes are prescribed tablets to control their blood glucose levels. These tablets are intended to be used in conjunction with healthy eating and regular exercise. Eventually it may be necessary for diabetic patients to start taking insulin to control blood glucose levels, when your body is no longer producing enough insulin of its own. Eating right plays a big role in managing diabetes. It can make a big difference in keeping your blood sugar level under control. When building your diet the four main foods to focus on are carbs, fibre, fat and salt. (Nazario, 2005) Some food consisting of these are: - Fresh fruit and starchy vegetables - Milk, yogurt - Bread, cereal, rice, pasta, crackers - Cooked dried beans and peas - Brown rice - Bran products - Cheese, milk - Beef - Baked items If you leave you diabetes untreated you can end up with

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Utopian Societies Impact - 911 Words

Utopian communities have had an incredible impact on both American society and various recognized religious sects throughout the United States as a whole. Many people saw, and still see, democratic government as unfair, leaving the poor behind to become poorer while the rich continued to get richer; they felt a change in work and fairness was officially in order. Utopian societies were created with commendable intentions, and their idea of the perfect cooperative society is an attractive conference, but they were all considered experiments because they all declined swiftly and hopelessly. The western concept of utopias stem in the age-old world, where fables of a carnal arcadia lost to history, linked to the human ambition to build an ideal community, abetted in forming the utopian notion (â€Å"Utopias in America†). Ideal communities have varied considerably in philosophy and design, and maybe not all have been persistently utopian in the draconian understanding of hoping t o achieve a system for a perfect community. Utopian communitarianism seems to have deeper roots set in the United States than in Western Europe, more specifically in actually putting philosophy into practice. This composite mental image may appear misplaced in a nation with an intense admiration towards individuality, but the perseverance amongst these societies brings to light quite a bit about the incredibly diverse American culture, notably how the sexes have thought of cultural advancement and howShow MoreRelatedEngels Inspired Utopian Society Essay1000 Words   |  4 Pagescontains a society with minimal government involvement and a technological driven life. It outlines a life where the imperfections of capitalism is absent thus leading to a happy, ideal life. Capitalism is an economic system where private ownership is permitted to allow exchange of goods and services in a monetary system surrounded by competition (Dictionary 1). Technology would solve world issues in this id eal society such as having clean energy. With little opposition, people in this society would beRead MoreA Utopian Society By John Locke1257 Words   |  6 Pagesbecome a part of societies, and most commonly these societies also have governments which maintain order and protect the people under said government. However, there are many forms of government, all of which have flaws and none can be considered a perfect government. One government which is commonly found in beginning of many societies is a monarchy. The flaws and unjust division of power within a monarchy leads John Locke to create a utopian society, which is a perfect or ideal society. John Locke attemptsRead MoreThe Utopian Society : A Utopian State1296 Words   |  6 Pages A utopian world is one that is different from person to person and given the ideology that one attains, the utopian state doesn’t fit all individuals. In my socially just utopian society, women have the same rights as every man that walks this earth. Differences and individuality would be embraced and not imposed; they would be respected and not ridiculed. There is no political correctness in my utopia; rather, it differs depending on a woman’s personal choices. In the past, women had few lifeRead More Henry David Thoreaus Civil Disobedience and Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail820 Words   |  4 Pagesenduring contemplation of life and its purpose, insightfully analyzes the conflicting relationship between the government and the people it governs. He considerately evokes the notion that the majority of people are restrained by the government and society from making decisions with consideration of their conscience and that people need to overcome the reig n of the government to realize their own ethics and morals. King, in accordance, eloquently and passionately contends the injustice presented inRead MoreComparative Essay on Henry David Thoreau in Civil Disobedience and Martin Luther King in Letter from Birmingham Jail820 Words   |  4 Pagesenduring contemplation of life and its purpose, insightfully analyzes the conflicting relationship between the government and the people it governs. He considerately evokes the notion that the majority of people are restrained by the government and society from making decisions with consideration of their conscience and that people need to overcome the reign of the government to realize their own ethics and morals. King, in accordance, eloquently and passionately contends the injustice presented inRead MoreSecond Great Awakening954 Words   |  4 PagesWHAT WAYS DID THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING INFLUENCE AMERICAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE?† In the thirty year span between 1830 and 1860, the Second Great Awakening did much to change the modern American mind by sparking the abolitionist movement, empowering women (in their domestic sphere) and forming the cult of domesticity, partially fixing the corrupt government through the temperance movement, and in the creation of many utopian societies by radical religious populations. Puritanism was kicked toRead MoreDoes The Promise Of Paradise Produce Hell?1134 Words   |  5 Pagesgone wrong, or a utopia that functions only for a particular segment of society. Based on Karl Popper’s theory of ‘‘those who promise us paradise on Earth never produce anything but hell’’, in the following text, problems that originate from the attempt to physically create utopia will be discussed as well as their impacts on fulfilling this attempt. Architecture is fully interwoven with society. Most of the theorists of utopian ideas and social reforms of the 19th and 20th century attributed biggerRead MoreAldous Huxley s Brave New World Freedom1236 Words   |  5 Pagesworld freedom is an option none of his characters possess. Due to the global depression in the 1920s and 1930s, Aldous Huxley warns of individuality and self-perseverance in Brave New World. World war 1 and the great depression had a large impact on BNW. Figures of WWI provided material to BNW like†[Benito Mussolini who] led an authoritarian government that fought against birth control in order to produce enough manpower for the next war, [which] provided materials for huxley’s dystopia†(SomawebRead MoreThe Modern Reality Of The Cities750 Words   |  3 Pagesgone wrong, or a utopia that functions only for a particular segment of society. Based on Karl Popper’s theory of ‘‘those who promise us paradise on Earth never produce anything but hell’’, in the following text, problems that originate from the attempt to physically create utopia will be discussed as well as their impacts on fulfilling this attempt. Architecture is fully interwoven with society. Most of the theorists of utopian ideas and social reforms of the 19th and 20th century attributed biggerRead MoreThe Most Serious Problems Facing Humankind1280 Words   |  6 Pagesworld. Utopian followers believe that humans are intrinsically good people who only become evil due to their circumstances. Evil is only a natural reaction to an unfair life and a lack of necessary resources. For example, utopian supporters would believe that gang members only sin because they were uneducated and born in the poorest communities. This secular idea claims that supplying resources to every single person would eliminate evil permanently. Thus, one must create a perfect society to distribute

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

China and Africa Trade Relations Essay - 1873 Words

Today’s world is shrinking. Not literally of course, but the advances in technology make it easy to span thousands of miles of land and sea, so people can immediately communicate with each other. The internet has connected the world instantly, and planes make traveling from one side of the world to the other a piece of cake compared to the long, dangerous sea voyages of the past. People move and migrate constantly, all the while exchanging ideas and goods. Trade has always played an important role in human history. Whether the swapping of an apple for an orange, or $12 million dollars for a new dam, the fluid movement of goods and services from one to another is how humans have been able to receive things they might not have had†¦show more content†¦While relations with China are not in themselves a recent phenomenon, the extensive amount of trade that the two partake in is. Actually, the affiliation between China and Africa stretches back centuries. Some schol ars try to establish the starting point based on â€Å"the discovery of ancient Chinese ceramics on the east coast of Africa, or to the trading ties begun under the Song dynasty† (Raine 13). Trying to trace ties back this far is important in increasing a sense of loyalty. After all, people tend to have stronger feelings of fidelity towards someone they have known for years, as compared to someone they have just met. Another frequently cited encounter is when the Chinese explorer Zheng He â€Å"reached the east coast of Africa where†¦Zheng came, saw and never conquered†¦[leaving only a legacy] of trade, stimulating a local market for Chinese silk and porcelain† (Raine 13). This incident is important in further establishing solidarity between the two nations. China refers to this history to prove â€Å"it has interacted commercially without further agenda and without detriment to Africa† (Raine 14). It uses this point to relate to Africa – th ey are both Third World nations that have faced oppression from the First World, and therefore need to stick together. In 1954, President Mao of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) wanted to create diplomaticShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at the China-Africa Relation1563 Words   |  6 Pagesdevelopment. From these conflicting views emerge theories on the effect of aid, investment and trade on economic growth––which, in current literature, suggests an ambiguous result. On the issue of aid, Pronk (2001) pointed out that aid can be seen as a catalyst rather than a primer mover, in the sense that aid is not a cause of development but a push or support to development. In the China-Africa relation, the role of aid has been to allow recipient countries to level their investment above domesticRead MoreOpen and Prosperous Trade with South Africa1442 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction South Africa has enjoyed since the early 90s open and prosperous trade between there international relationships. The ruling party however has been under the spotlight for majority of their duration in power. In the duration of the ruling parties last term there has been many changes; new competitive political parties were formed, service delivery strikes have risen tremendously, youth have lost faith in the government and literacy and education has been criticised globally.Based onRead MoreCcot Between Africa and Eurasia Trade Networks from 300ce-1450ce629 Words   |  3 Pagesin the trade works between Africa and Eurasia from 300CE-1450CE. The motives for creating trade relations was to get the necessary goods to live on as well as becoming richer despite of living in different regions. However the goods that were traded changed like gold, salt, indigo, and Persian rugs. As well as the trading of ideas that changed technology and religion. Trade between Africa and Eurasia remained constant during 300CE. Egypt would rise in power becoming an empire in Africa while EurasiaRead MoreThe Cultural Influence of The Republic of Djibouti Essay1586 Words   |  7 Pagesare located within the Combined Joint Task Force- Horn of Africa AOR. This paper will discuss the cultural influence of the Republic of Djibouti as well as its influence on bordering countries within its region. Additionally, this paper will portray Djibouti’s global significance and its effect on United States interest within the AOR. Historically, Djibouti’s strategic location and status as a free trade zone within the Horn of Africa has played a major role in this country’s importance throughoutRead MoreBy The End Of The Middle Ages, The World Of Human Civilization.898 Words   |  4 Pagesaround them, we are now able to examine the evolution of a new world. In the preceding centuries, Asia had enjoyed a long history of unification by conquest. The Persian and Assyrian empires had unified most of the Middle East, mitigated tribal relations, and brought many years of prosperity to the diverse peoples in the regions they controlled. India had flourished within itself as the Harappan civilization had developed a sustainable way of life in the subcontinent. With the people known as AryansRead MoreThe Global Economic and Political Implications of the South African 2014 General Elections1164 Words   |  5 Pagesyear for South Africa. The first elections after the death of South African ex-president Nelson Mandela will take place and after twenty years of democracy, the world will be watching us again. The world holds much interest in the economy and politics of South Africa as was discussed in Appendix A and Appendix B and it is safe to assume that the world is a stakeholder in the politics and economy of South Africa. The purpose of this essay is to explore the world’s stake in South Africa, its nature andRead MoreMultilateral Relations Between Africa And Africa1407 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Africa, once regarded as ‘good for nothing but exploitation’, however, the block has gradually gained modest relations, and aspiring to cultivate a multifaceted partnership with major global political players in all directions from Left-Right, East–West, North-South, and South-South. The two major partners forged their own cooperation are Peoples Republic of China and United States of America and the partnerships they created are known as Sino - Africa relations named ‘Forum on China-AfricaRead MoreTrade Between China And Latin America1162 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1999, trade between China and Latin America totaled approximately $8 billion; by 2009, that number had had grown to $130 billion. Earlier this year, a study by the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) concluded that by the year 2016, trade between China and Latin America will surpass that between the Eurozone and Latin America, making China Latin A merica’s second largest trading partner. Most studies of this partnership have focused on: a growing securityRead MoreWhat Is The Consequences Of The Tunisian Economy?981 Words   |  4 Pages the journey to an optimum and stable economy has not been a seamless transition for Tunisia. There have been various geo-political incidences that almost destabilized the Tunisian economy (Naccache, 40). Conflicts and tension in Libya caused the trade viability of Tunisia to decrease in 2009. The unrest also had significant implications on some aspects of the Tunisian economy, such as tourism. Tourism is a big source of revenue for Tunisia; hence, anything that threatens the safety of tourists isRead MoreEconomic Relations Between China And Ghana1485 Words   |  6 Pagesjust China giving loans to Ghana, they also have a very stable trading relationship. They have been trading since their economic ties first started and it has been pretty steady. Ghana, however, is not keeping up as quickly with China in the sense of export-import as the gap between the import of Chinese goods and Ghana’s export has widen over the years. Although their exports to imports ratio is not even and the trade imbalance exists, Ghana’s willingness to still continue trading with China turns

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

American Healthcare System

Questions: 1. Who are Ben Rush, Flexner, and Koch? What did they accomplish?2. Compare advantages of MD training?3. How has MD training changed since 1800s?4. What were some problems with Flexners report?5. How have hospitals evolved?6. What was the original purpose of insurance and why has insurance grown?7. What is the difference between Medicaid and Medicare (in detail)?8. What is the difference between buying a widget vs healthcare?9. Why do healthcare costs continue to increase and what are some solutions?10. What is a PPO, HMO, deductible, risk rating, HSA, co-pay, and denial? Answers: 1. Benjamin Rush (1746-1813), Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (1843-1910), and Abraham Flexner (1866-1959) were enlightenment intellectuals who are known for greatly contributing to the development of medical education in the country. On his part, Rush, a renowned physician and professor of chemistry, he did a lot of research that really reformed medicine. Koch, a pioneering microbiologist is credited with discovering the causes of the troublesome Tuberculosis (TB). Flexner, on the other hand, is praised for his Flexner Report that transformed medical education and made what it is today. 2. MD training should be recommended to all medical students because it has many advantages. First, it is a structured kind of training that is properly designed to suit learners and make them to be creative and critical scientists. Besides, it gives learners an opportunity to enjoy an extended period of learning and mentorship. This gives them enough experience to be competent professionals upon a successful completion of their studies. 3. Indeed, MD training is an evolving process that has undergone a lot of changes. At the beginning, in the 1600s, during the colonial period, medical practitioners were mainly subdivided into apothecaries, surgeons and physicians based on the level of their education and experience. As time went by, more changes were introduced such as the building of medical colleges, setting of admission standards, introduction of specializations, MD courses, licensing and certifications of practitioners. 4. Although Flexner Report is celebrated as the most important development in the history of medical education in the USA and Canada, it was criticized for leading to the restriction of access to medical education because it made it more expensive and restricted for the minority and disadvantaged groups such African-Americans and women. This is why the enrolment rate to medical schools declined from 28,000 to 14,000 by 1920. 5. The changes in the medical sector have not excluded the hospitals because they are also evolving as well. Initially, hospitals were built using different designs, offered services to clients and used little technologies. Today, all these have changed because of the expansion of departments, increase in the number of patients and technological innovations that was not there before. At the same time, hospitals now focus on delivering equitable, safe, efficient and patient-centered care. 6. Originally, health insurance was exclusively used for catering for the boarding and nursing care services gotten at the health care facility. Today, insurance has grown because it is needed to cover all hospital expenses including the physician bills and medication. 7. Unlike Medicaid which is a federal-state insurance scheme, Medicare is a federal government health insurance scheme exclusively for the old people who are over the age of 65 years. 8. When one buys a widget, one uses money to acquire a good. However, when buying healthcare, one acquires a service. Basically, there is no much deal because each of them gets a value for the money spent. However, the only difference is that, unlike a widget, healthcare service is intangible and cannot be separated from the person offering it. 9. Healthcare costs continue to increase because of the increased costs of running health facilities and rendering healthcare services. To solve the problem, the government should be actively involved in regulating healthcare sector by subsidizing healthcare services and taming the inflation rates in the economy. 10. PPO, Preferred Provider Organization, is a health insurance plan that does not cover all, but a few select specialists within the network of the insurer. HMO stands for Health Maintenance Organization which is an insurance plan that has lower rates of out of pocket payments and monthly premiums than other options. However, it only covers certain healthcare services qrendered by a specific group of healthcare providers. Deductible is the total amount of money paid for by an insured before the insurer starts paying the expenses incurred Risk Rating is the determination of the likelihood of a risk occurrence based on the anticipated threats and the situation. HAS, a Health Savings Account, is a health insurance plan in which an individual covers all the medical expenses. Co-Pay is the fixed amount of money catered for by the insured and must be paid before acquiring the medical services needed. Denial is a term used in insurance to mean the refusal of an insurer to pay for the healthcare services received by the insured

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Exploration Conflict Essays - American Culture,

Exploration Conflict "Human life is reduced to real suffering, to hell, only when two ages, two cultures and religions, overlap." Stated by Albreight Von Haller. Human life, during the discovery of the new world was reduced to real suffering. When the European explorers came across the seas, they brought their own thoughts, beliefs, and ways of life, while the natives already held a strong history and independent civilization. Native Americans and the Europeans conflicted culturally with their religious beliefs, militarily, and their interpretations of land. The religious beliefs of the European explorers were completely from the bible. God made man and gave him complete control, as shown here in the book of Genesis 1:26. "Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let him rule over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground."" The Europeans thought of the native peoples as heathens or non believers because they did not believe in the Christian God. In one instance the Spanish Explorers forced native Americans to give up their own religious customs. Barbra Mcall the author of The European Invasion describes how the Pueblo people were forbidden to worship the Great Spirit in ways they had done for centuries. The Indian people conducted ceremonies and other traditional activities in secret, until the Spanish found out about the secret gatherings. As a consequence the pueblo people were brutally beaten and even burnt at the stake. Another way the Europeans and natives conflicted was militarily. The Europeans came from a much more advanced society. During exploration they traveled with many men and better weapons than the Indians. In the 1500's, when exploration to the new land first started there were more than 1 million native people living here, by the end of the 1800's their population had reduced to an estimated 200,000 people, a fact from The Invasion Within, written by James Axtell The concept of land is one more example of the differences between the natives, and the European explorers. Native Americans believed the land and its riches were gifts from the Great Spirit and should be treated with the utmost respect. Tzvetan Todorov talks about the Indian perspective in her book The Conquest of America, saying. The idea of owning land had been unknown to the Native Americans, many chiefs signed treaties of land ownership to the settlers, but did not comprehend what was meant by the agreement.. While the settlers used these treaties as legal rites to alter the land, and kill the animals. These misunderstandings grew into bigger problems, and even battles. Thus, the native Americans and the European explorers had many cultural confrontations. Throughout history there were some examples of cooperation among the Indians and settlers. The Indians taught the settlers how to grow maize and live off the land better. Settlers showed the Indians many things and even brought over the first horse to the Indians. Although there were some examples of cooperation, generally speaking the American Indians were invaded and treated very poorly because they were misunderstood. More important is the ethical question Tzvetan Todorov raises, "How should one behave with representatives of other cultures? Can we accept them as different, yet equal and worthy of respect?" Even in today's society we pray we will be able to learn from other cultures instead of ignorance and prejudice. Even today it is still hard to accept people with different ideas and different cultures. Hopefully, we will learn from the European invasion of the Indians, and try to accept other cultures as worthy of respect.

Monday, March 9, 2020

12 Cause Effect Essay Topics on #8220;Living Downstream#8221; by Sandra Steingraber

12 Cause Effect Essay Topics on #8220;Living Downstream#8221; by Sandra Steingraber If you are tasked with writing a cause or effect essay on the book Living Downstream there are many potential topics from which to choose. Of course, no matter the topic you have selected, it is imperative that you back up any statement or claim you make with facts. In order to help you in that regard, below you will find a handful of facts which might prove useful in the course of your writing. In the book, agricultural and industrial pollution are mixed together with anecdotes in order to provide readers with medical literature assessments, scientific assessments, and the conclusions therein about the relationship between rising rates of cancers and environmental influences. There remains a serious imbalance between studies of which environmental factors influence or contribute to cancers and those studies which focus instead of genetic predispositions for cancers. This remains a serious concern given that many cancers are not genetically transferrable and the source must be derived from an outside factor, such as an environmental factor. The reason this need should be filled is that the cancers caused by genetics, meaning those which are inherited, cannot really be altered at present and nothing can be done to improve upon the situation. However, those cancers caused by various environmental factors can be changed immediately and all influences mitigated, especially carcinogens. Carcinogens are substances which are known to cause cancer inside of living tissue, and these carcinogens exist in a variety of environmental substances to which people are exposed regularly. Chemical pesticides are one striking example of carcinogens which make their way into the human body. Those workers who are exposed to high levels of many chemicals regularly face contamination that goes unchecked by local healthcare, and only with blood and urine samples can the changes to the body be tracked. In the state of Illinois alone 54 million pounds of synthetic pesticides had been used on farms, many of which were poison. In 1950 less than 10% of all fields were sprayed with any pesticides but by 1993 99% had been treated with chemicals. Americans today between the ages of 35 and 64 are likely to die from cancer above all other ailments. In fact, by 1950 only 25% of adults could expect to get cancer while today that rate is almost 50% for men and 40% for women. The rise in cancer has increased steadily with processed foods, changing production habits, and changes in manufacturing. The qualifying link between all of these changes is the introduction of different chemical contaminants to the environment. Tazewell County located in the state of Illinois has shown many cases of a rare bladder cancer, a cancer which was contracted by the author when she was only 20 years of age. The high rates of said cancer has been linked scientifically to the carcinogenic chemicals in the region. The evidence presented in the book revealed that there was a six fold increase in the rates of bladder cancer among the workers who were exposed to particular chemicals related to rubber before legal workplace limits were put into place. In addition, immigrants who came to the area started to exhibit signs of the cancers adopted in the new area, and not the cancers which were prevalent in the place where they had been born. The maps presented by the author indicate that there are more cancers prevalent in urban areas compared to rural areas. In these maps, there are more cancers in the rural counties where the use of pesticides took place heavily, compared to those rural areas where the use of pesticides was minimal. The various studies presented in the book indicate that cancer clusters are prevalent near polluted dump sites, polluted valleys, polluted rivers, and near chemical factories. The same studies revealed that the rate of cancer in children has increased. The lifestyles of children have remained much the same over the last fifty years, without changes to alcohol consumption, smoking, or stress-related work, and yet the rate of cancer among children has risen at steady rates. Research indicates that the rate of shellfish and fish living within polluted waters has directly influenced the increase in cancer rates. Today, North Americans are seeing an increase in liver tumors among 16 fish species located throughout 25 different locations both fresh water and salt water. Each of these locations has become chemically polluted over the last sixty years. This was contrasted to the fact that the rates of liver cancer among members of those same fish species which inhabit waters not polluted by chemicals is almost non-existent. The studies conducted and presented by the author have indicated that chemicals contained in polluted areas are damaging to the immune system as well as to the endocrine system. The damage which is done to these areas results in the promotion of cancers. Regardless of whether the carcinogens have been introduced into the environment deliberately or accidentally, many scientists are afraid to speak out toward improvement unless they can be 100% sure there is a serious link and no other possible influencers. However, the existence of such high chemicals, even with the near one hundred percent studies which have been published, now render these areas seriously dangerous to the people who live there with very little legislation being done to help or hinder. There remains a serious cancer epidemic brought about by the chemical residues and the pesticides which have been used among the environment. This first claim has only been substantiated by studies covered within the book, and few and far between beyond that scope. With these facts in mind, you can find a unique cause or effect on which to focus for your writing (we prepared for you 20 sample topics on â€Å"Living Downstream† by S. Steingraber as well). Remember, there are many more facts out there within the span of the book and this list is by no means comprehensive. However, it should serve as a useful guide when you are starting off your work. Along with this information feel free to read our writing tips on cause effects essays. References: Reus, J. AN ENVIRONMENTAL YARDSTICK FOR PESTICIDES: AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF PESTICIDES.  Acta Hortic.  347 (1993): 215-224. Web. Searle, Charles E.  Chemical Carcinogens. Washington: American Chemical Society, 1976. Print. Steingraber, Sandra.  Living Downstream. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1997. Print. Stich, H. F.  Carcinogens And Mutagens In The Environment. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1982. Print. Viroj Wiwanitkit.,.  Melamine And Other Problematic Food Carcinogens. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2009. Print. Zahm, Shelia Hoar, and Susan S. Devesa. Childhood Cancer: Overview Of Incidence Trends And Environmental Carcinogens.  Environmental Health Perspectives  103 (1995): 177. Web.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Critically discuss the view that gender is relevant to the study of Essay

Critically discuss the view that gender is relevant to the study of INTELLIGENCE. Ground your answer in theory and illustrate w - Essay Example However, since other variables (age, socio-cultural, and environmental factors, etc.) may also affect brain activity and behavior, the amount of certainty for the differences in cognitive ability between genders base on the innate neuroanatomical brain structure pose complexity for the researchers in measuring individual’s intelligence. To begin with, clinical/educational psychologist Richard Pratt (2009) defined human intelligence as a very special mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience, and it is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smartness, but rather but rather reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings. Academic achievement is one of the most widely accepted aspects of life that reflects intelligence and because achievement is expected to accompany intelligence, a test that correlates with achievements has some evidence that it is measuring intelligence (Hersen, 2004, p. 26). IQ (Intelligent Quotient) test generally measures cognitive ability in the form of intelligence assessment tools. It attempts to measure the individual’s intellectual functioning or the basic ability to understand and assimilate the world and how this knowledge is being applied in life. Various qualities such as factual knowledge, short-term memory, abstract reasoning, visual-spatial abilities, and common sense are measured by IQ test (Rich, n.d.). Commonly-used IQ test tools that provide verbal and nonverbal assessments of intelligence are Stanford-Binet test, Wechsler Scales, and SAT (scholastic assessment test). However, SAT has been criticized for the possible effects of gender bias (Santrock, 2005). In connection to measuring intelligence among individuals, whether gender plays a significant factor that may predict one’s cognitive ability edge has been an interesting issue subjected under many investigations. Various studies were made in different countries all over the world to find any significant difference between the performances of both genders. In Turkey, one study to determine significant gender differences in academic performance among undergraduate students in a large university was conducted in Turkey by Dayioglu and Turut-Asik (2004). This study was based on three indicators; university entrance scores, performance in the English preparatory school, and performance (based on cumulative grade point average or CGPA) in the program where the student is majoring in. Results showed a gender gap in favor of male students in terms of university entrance score, as well as in the performance in English preparatory school. However, female students outperformed their male counterparts in the program where they major in based on CGPA. The authors concluded that despite their lower university entrance scores and under-representation i n most departments, female undergraduate students outperform the males during their college years. Derived results have implications on the gender segregation by fields of study to open and encourage female students to get into lucrative study fields as the study have shown their competence in terms of