Saturday, August 31, 2019

How Harper Lee Develops the Symbol of the Mockingbird

Mockingbirds are a symbol of sheer innocence; their existence causes no harm to others and the sole purpose of its life is to make mellifluous music for all to enjoy. The mockingbird’s sweet chorus is destroyed and disregarded in to kill a mockingbird, as the harmless characters of Boo Radley and Tom Robinson are exiled and imprisoned despite their altruism. The use of the mockingbird in the title provides distinction and coincides through characters and events during the novel.Harper Lee develops the symbol of the mockingbird in the novel through the town pariahs Boo Radley and Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson is accused of a crime he did not commit and in reality was helping another person without a reward. In chapter 10 Jem and Scout are shown an opening to the malevolence in society and are taught a moral lesson and the only sin considered by Atticus, â€Å" Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit em’, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mocking. This quote foreshadows the up-coming events involving Tom Robinson and the injustices he will have to endure, even though the Mockingbird is not deserving of anguish, he is still put to death through the hands of others who would shoot any bird, regardless of what kind it may be. Scout and Jem at the beginning of the novel are oblivious to the harsh racial segregation and the moral teachings of Atticus only have literal meanings until they become immersed in the enmity of racism, where their innocence is later destroyed and the blurred barriers between their father and Maycomb become clear.Atticus is responsible for maintaining the stability of Maycomb and the co-existence of good and evil; he influences his children to have morally good actions and values unlike many other children of Maycomb. Atticus strives for the rights of the mockingbird and the defenceless Tom Robinson, despite the fact that he knows as soon as Mayella Ewell screamed he was a dead man. Atticus allowing Tom Robinson to a trial allowed the ignorance and hatred in Maycomb to some extent deteriorate, even Mr.Underwood a man who never spoke about the â€Å"miscarriages of justice†¦ likened Tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of song birds by hunters and children. † Just as Atticus defends the innocent and vulnerable Tom Robinson, he also provides refuge and respect to Boo Radley, a prejudiced against outcast of Maycomb. From the beginning of the novel Atticus respects Boo Radley telling Scout and Jem not to play in his yard, as he deserves the sanctity of privacy. Town gossip and the children’s fantasy surrounding Boo Radley constrain him to his home, which is veiled in mystery, â€Å"Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom.People said he existed, but Jem and I had never seen him. People said he went out at night when the moon was down, and peeped in windows†. Later in the novel the children realise that there was an error in their judgement of Boo Radley and th eir fear of him was unjust and cruel as behind the concocted hysteria is a kind-hearted and an innocent mockingbird as Boo Radley inflicts no harm on others and is just an innocuous victim of a cruel narrow-minded society.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Plate Tectonics Essay Essay

Assess the strength of the relationship between tectonic processes and major landforms on the earth’s surface. Tectonic processes have been responsible for the major landforms across the Earth’s surface. These processes are controlled by the convection currents rising from the Earth’s mantle. Firstly, one place where tectonic activity occurs is at oceanic to oceanic constructive plate boundaries. Here two plates diverge or move away from each other, pushed apart by huge convection currents In the earth’s mantle. These convection currents are initiated by heat energy produced from radioactive decay in the earth’s core. As the convection currents move the plates away from each other, there is a weaker zone in the crust and an increase in heat near the surface. The hotter, expanded crust forms a ridge. Magma rises up from the mantle in the gap. The lava cools, solidifies and forms a chain of volcanic mountains thousands of miles long down the middle of the ocean eg. Atlantic. There are transform faults at right angles to the ridge. The movement of these faults causes rift valleys to occur. Examples of these landforms created by constructive plate margins are the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MIR) , and the Great African rift valley (GARV). The MIR is the result of the North American plate and Eurasian plate diverging in the middle of the Atlantic ocean. Here, volcanic islands such as Iceland, the Canary islands and ascension island have been created by the rising magma from the mantle. The GARV is an example of where the crust has dropped down between parallel faults to form rift valleys. As the crust subducts into the mantle it melts causing igneous activity below, magma to rise and therefore volcanoes erupt on the surface as a result. Evidence of this volcanic activity is shown by Mount Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro. The lava here has a low viscosity, it very hot (1200 C) and has a low silica content. An example of where landforms have been created at a different plate boundary, a destructive plate margin, is where two plates, the Nazca plate, an oceanic plate, and the South American plate, a continental plate, converge. Here, two plates meet and the denser oceanic lithosphere of the Nazca plate is forced down under the more buoyant continental lithosphere of  the South American plate, descending at an angle into the mantle in a process called subduction. This is marked on the ocean surface by the presence of the Peru-Chilie trench. The friction between the plates prevents the subducting oceanic plate from sliding smoothly. As it descends it drags against the overlying plate causing both fracture and deform. This results in frequent shallow focus earthquakes The subduction of the Nazca plate under southern Chile produced the largest earthquake ever recorded, with a magnitude of 9.5 in 1960. Volcanoes are also created here as one plate subducts and partially melts; the magma rises up through fissures and can reach the surface. The type of lava here is andesitic, very high in silica and not very hot resulting in a composite volcano being formed out of layers of ash and lava. The cascade mountain range is an example of where a destructive plate boundary has caused the Juan de Fuca plate to subduct under the North American plate. This resulted in 15 composite volcanoes being formed, one of them, Mount St. Helens. Similar to the peru-chile region, the Japanese islands are situated in a subduction zone. In the northwestern margin of the pacific oceans, the pacific plate and Philippine plate converge. On the pacific side, trenches run parallel to these islands. As one plate subducts beneath the other, it heats up and melted magmas rise towards the surface. These Japanese island arcs extend 3000km and magma produced under them form felsic plutonic rocks (granite), some of which erupts on the surface to make volcanoes. Large-scale formation of granites develops the crust of island arc. On the other hand, some tectonic activity doesn’t produce any landform. An example is at the San Andreas Fault. Although both plates are moving in a north westerly direction, the pacific plate Is moving faster than the north American plate (7cm/year faster), so the relative movement of the north American plate is to the south east. The pacific plate is being moved northwest due to the sea floor spreading from the pacific coast rise in the gulf of California. The North American plate is being pushed west and north due to sea floor spreading of the mid-Atlantic ridge. Movement is sporadic and jerky. Frictional forces lock the blocks of lithosphere together for years at a time. When frictional forces are overcome, the plates slip and  shallow focus earthquakes are generated. Similarly, landforms can be produced without the source of tectonic activity. The Hawaiian islands are not connected with any plate boundary. The volcanic area is caused by a localized hotspot beneath the pacific plate. A concentration of radioactive elements inside the mantle may cause such a hotspot to develop. From this, a plume of magma rises to eat into the plate above the hotspot. The hotspot is stationary so as the pacific plate moves over it, lines of basaltic shield volcanoes are created. These can be eroded to have flat tops called guyots. In Hawaii, the main island is closest to the hotspot and so it is the most volcanically active. However as the pacific plate moves north west at 10cm/year, a new island, Loihi will form as the submarine volcano builds up to sea level. Finally, collision plate boundries.. When continental and oceanic plates collide, the thinner and more dense oceanic plate is overridden by the thicker and less dense continental plate. The oceanic plate is forced don into the mantle by a process called subduction. As the oceanic plate descends it is forced into higher temperature environments. At 100 miles deep the subducting plate begins to melt. The partial melting produces magma chambers above the subducting oceanic plate. The magma ascends through the overlying materials, melting and fracturing its way up. If the magma rises to the surface without solidifying it will break through in the form of a volcanic eruption. The Himalayan mountains are an example of where the Indian continental plate has been put under extreme pressure as it collides with the Eurasian plate, forcing the edges of the pates upwards in to a series of folds, as one subducts beneath the other. In conclusion, the strength of the relationship between tectonic processes and major landforms on earth can be described as strong. There is a clear correlation between the events that occur at constructive, destructive and collision plate boundaries and the landforms produced consequently. Although there are situations where the two are not linked, ultimately the characteristics of the landform will have been influenced by some soft of tectonic movement. For example, the chains of Hawaiian hotspot islands are  in this shape due to the northward movement of the pacific plate.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Current health and safety legislation Essay

Ensure the area in or outdoors is free of any hazards or risks and is safe for CYP to work or play in safely. There should be adequate space for the number of people using it to move round comfortably and safely. Equipment should be stored safely storage should be labelled clearly. Furniture should be appropriate size for age of CYP using it. Lighting and noise should be taken into account and specific risks to individuals as in pregnancy, impaired sight or hearing, disabled, and CYP with special educational needs. We have a duty of care towards all the CYP in our care. The outdoor environment has some different needs like secure boundaries, being regularly inspected. The area should be checked for litter broken glass or animal droppings. Ensure any plants bushes or trees are safe no thorns or nettles and no poisonous or irritant leaves, berries, or flowers. Safety rules should be displayed and explained to the CYP also making sure they have a clear understanding of how to use any to ys or equipment safely. Areas that include ponds, pools and sandpits etc should be covered when not in use. Be aware of lines of responsibility for checking the learning environment for risks and hazards. Your health and safety officer should answer any queries you have. There should be the correct ratio of adults to children with suitable training and safety clearance. In both these environments and off-site visits everyone should be aware of what to do in case of: emergencies, fire alarms, incidents, accidents or illness. Be aware of possible signs and indicators of child abuse: physical, emotional, sexual abuse, bullying and harassment , neglect and failure to thrive not based on illness. The signs could be: behavioural changes such as regression, withdrawal, excessive attention seeking, aggression and negative behaviour. Physical indicators such as unlikely bruising, burns, marks, genital irritation or damage, hunger , being dirty, lack of  health care. In school we have notices about certain children whom either have allergies, specific illnesses that require specialised medication or immediate contacting of emergency services, they have a picture of the child and detailed instructions of what to do in an emergency. All incidents and accidents no matter how minor are recorded in detail in our first aid book, anything more serious has to be recorded on special incident sheets along with any witness statements. We have regular fire drill practices. There are security locks on the main exits that can only be opened with a swipe card that only members of staff have. If someone should get through this system and are unknown to staff they will be challenged by any member of staff within the school and asked to leave. All the CYP’s are regularly reminded of stranger danger and what to do if they should be approached by a stranger. The gates are locked to the entrance of the school at starting and leaving times for the CYP’s to ensure there is no danger from cars or lorries driving on and off site. CYP are regularly reminded of hygiene issues like washing hands after using the toilet or at lunch times before eating their food, there are also posters to remind them on a daily basis too.

Favorite figure from the Hebrew Bible Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Favorite figure from the Hebrew Bible - Essay Example Job is the significant and main character in the Book of Job. He is my personal favorite figure in the Hebrew Bible because of the attitude he maintained even throughout the face of sufferings and difficulties that ordinary men would not have been able to have. From the very beginning of the book, Job is described as a righteous and blameless man who pleased God in every way. After every feast his children held, â€Å"Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt offerings [according] to the number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually.† (Interlinear Hebrew Bible. Job 1:5) He did everything he could to stay away from all kinds of evil. He was even the greatest man among all the people of the East. He was also extremely wealthy and influential in the land of Uz, where he lived and resided. Because of his character and influence, Satan had come to the Lord’s presence with the angels and conferred with God regarding Job. Satan believed that Job was only faithful and loyal to the Lord because of the wealth and the influence that he had in the area where he lived. Without it, Job would, without hesitation, turn his back to God and would stop serving Him. This challenge of Satan resulted in Job becoming a ‘test’ of faith and loyalty in the Lord. After the Lord had told Satan and given him permission that, â€Å"all that he hath [is] in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand, Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.† (Interlinear Hebrew Bible. Job 1:12) And so Job’s troubles started pouring. In one day, several servants came to him telling him of the news that all the livestock that he had died. He quickly lost his wealth and even all his ten sons and dauhters, but in spite of

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

If you followed all the laws, would that make you a moral person Why Essay

If you followed all the laws, would that make you a moral person Why or why not - Essay Example The readings further offered the insight that under such circumstances it becomes the moral responsibility of citizens in the society to oppose such laws and disobey them. Therefore, as discerned from the core textbooks and outside research, I can discern that when an individual obeys all the laws in society, it does not make him a moral person. Obeying just laws, which are intended for the common good and well being of all the citizens, is the responsibility of every citizen in a country, as emphasized in the core reading and the journal articles I accessed during the research. These are intended to maintain peace and harmony within the society and to protect the weak from the strong. Similarly, laws also seek to prevent crimes, immorality and other evils within the society. Thus, citizens are bound to obey just laws for the prevalence of peace and harmony within the human society and when they break laws they become immoral people. On the other hand, the readings from the textbook chapters and other research materials I know that when unjust laws are enacted by rulers, such laws compromise the concept of common good. Thus, many political philosophers contend that unjust laws are no laws at all but â€Å"acts of violence† (George, 2008, p.194). Human history is replete with instances of exploitation of the weak by the ruling class through discrimination and other atrocities. The Nazi regime of Hitler sets a classic example of immoral rulers, who enacted discriminatory laws for the annihilation of particular races and it was considered as a breaking of law to â€Å"aid and comfort† members of these groups (Forji, 2010, p.156). The citizens of Germany, who had a moral responsibility to live in consonance with the tenets of â€Å"justice, and love for fellow man† failed to stand up to their moral responsibility, which led to the mass murder of millions and thus entailed the violation of common good (p.156). In this context, my readings provide me the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Avon Calls on Foreign Markets Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Avon Calls on Foreign Markets - Case Study Example This strategy guarantees increased sales because it captures the local customer needs. Given that the operation of the company is spread to different regions, this strategy captures the needs of people with different skin sensitivity to beauty products.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Additionally, another marketing orientation is the customer. Avon’s approaches in marketing are that it targets women. It takes into contemplation the age group of cosmetics users and the places where the women population propagates more rapidly. This strategy employs independent sales persons or Avon representatives, who places sales orders with Avon and deliver the same to customers. Another orientation employed by Avon is social marketing orientation that entails; a breast cancer crusade that creates a global awareness on breast cancer and community outreach and education. This strategy is core, because it targets its leading customers: the women.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A horde of re asons made Avon concentrate on more on the foreign operations than the U.S market. First, it was due to a forecast of a slow growth rate in the U.S market given that most of the market had been permeated already, and there remained no virgin market for its products. Therefore, any growth or increased sales would entail Avon competing to grab its competitor’s market share and given the nature of competition prevalent in the U.S market, Avon chose to direct its energy on less competitive arenas.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Secondly, Avon chose to redirect its energies away from the U.S market due to the changing nature and dynamism.... A horde of reasons made Avon concentrate on more on the foreign operations than the U.S market. First, it was due to a forecast of a slow growth rate in the U.S market given that most of the market had been permeated already, and there remained no virgin market for its products. Therefore, any growth or increased sales would entail Avon competing to grab its competitor’s market share and given the nature of competition prevalent in the U.S market, Avon chose to direct its energy on less competitive arenas. Secondly, Avon chose to redirect its energies away from the U.S market due to the changing nature and dynamism of its main market which affected its distribution strategies. Avon has been built around direct marketing whereby the Avon ladies sell directly to households and giving beauty advice. Therefore, direct sales were the backbone of the company for a long time. However, it the 20th century, many U.S women were making forays into the workforce. This had twin effect in t hat access to the women in their homes was hampered. Secondly, the number of women seeking part time employment with Avon reduced. On the other hand, there existed untapped markets elsewhere, for example, in inaccessible and remote part of Brazil and Philippines. A global recession like the one that happened in 2008 is not likely to curtail Avon activities materially. Indeed, it increases the number of people willing to work part time and independently, on which Avon marketing strategy is built. To add, since Avon has diversified its market to capture the foreign market is not likely to affect all the markets negatively at once. In fact, when things were gloomy in the United States, the foreign markets looked bright.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Marketing Plan for your new SERVICE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Marketing Plan for your new SERVICE - Essay Example tomers’ sophistication is surging upward, and the need for outsourced call care centers in Philippines and India is raising the necessity for development of language skills and computer training to satisfy the needs of the diverse and tremendously competitive American market. Due to this rapid growth, Americans are finding themselves sub par service due to the language barrier from country to country. It is our opportunity to educate the population of both countries in efforts to lower miscommunications. Our targets are individuals that are not functionally literate, and those that speak a language different than the export (Diola, 2014). We can hope our services are also able to slow the decline of call centers in India, while eager to see both countries grow. CompuLanguage is entering its first year of operation. Our services have been rendered; however marketing will be crucial in the development of our brand and services as well as to make our target market more aware of our brand and services for growth of our customer base. Tutors411 offers an array of services and subject lines to meet individual and organizational needs (Diola, 2014). The call center industry is a profitable business and the Philippines are taking advantage of it. According to Monticello (2012), there are over one hundred countries seeking current dominance in the industry (p.3). Malaysia, Singapore, and China are the Philippines’ primary competitors in the call center market. India has been struggling to keep business. It will lose seventy percent or thirty billion dollars’ worth of all Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) businesses; particularly call centers (Diola, 2014).   India has regained business due to sales and up-selling strategies. Also, Indian companies have moved to the Philippines. This is one of the key reasons for the steady growth of the call center industry in the Phillipines (Winn, 2014). There are a number of specific competitors that can be described as

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Law - Essay Example "Except where the parties have agreed otherwise, the goods do not conform with the contract unless they: (a) are fit for the purposes for which goods of the same description would ordinarily be used; (b) are fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly made known to the seller at the time of the conclusion of the contract, except where the circumstances show that the buyer did not rely, or that it was unreasonable for him to rely, on the seller's skill and judgment." In this case, the seller is acting in the course of business. It is common knowledge that bricks are made of clay. According to facts, ‘Sparkling Bricks’ were made of compressed paper. CISG (Article 38(1)) states that, ‘The buyer must examine the goods, or cause them to be examined, within as short a period as is practicable in the circumstances.† If the courts are convinced that it could have been revealed that the bricks were not made of clay upon reasonable examination, Brick-for-All would not be held liable. Paul can easily be expected to have known that what kind of material was used in making those bricks. Kingsley Ltd is a construction company and the purchasing of bricks is a very important factor for them. They must have chosen Paul to purchase the bricks because he must have had sufficient knowledge about bricks. In the given case, ‘Sparkling Bricks† were normally used externally which is their ordinary use. The facts clearly evince that the bricks that did not came into contact with sea salt did not allow damp into the house. They were fit for the purpose of external usage. The only purpose that was mentioned by Paul to the seller was external use. He never said anything about the location of the site where they were to be used. Paul chose the ‘Sparkling Bricks’ himself. On the other hand, i f ‘Sparkling Bricks’ are such that it cannot be found out upon reasonable examination that they were made of compressed paper instead of clay, it is a duty of Brick-for-All to tell the buyer about that fact. If it is further assumed that the knowledge about the bricks being made of compressed paper was crucial for Paul’s decision, Brick-for-All would be held liable. Article 36(1) of CISG states that, â€Å"The seller is liable in accordance with the contract and this Convention for any lack of conformity which exists at the time when the risk passes to the buyer, even though the lack of conformity becomes apparent only after that time.† Still assuming that reasonable examination by Paul could not have revealed the composition of the bricks, it would have been immaterial if Brick-for-All would have mentioned that fact to him. If the courts hold Brick-for-All liable, there is a question of restitution. Kingsley Ltd would be unable to return the bricks in the ir original form. Article 82(1) of CISG states that, â€Å"The buyer loses the right to declare the contract

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Roles of Nurses in the Camps Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Roles of Nurses in the Camps - Research Paper Example Over 10 million Syrians have fled from their homes as presidents Bashar al-Assad’s military fight with those against his rule as well as the jihadist military from the Islamic state. Violence increased and the country went into civil war, hence forcing Syrians to flee to refugee camps, for example, Zaatari refugee camp. Â  Nurses in the refugee camp counsel the traumatized patients. Many of the displaced people witnessed the death of their family members. (Choo, Hutchinson, & Bucknall, 2010). However, it is the role of a nurse to make them feel safe and help them adapt to the new environment. Provision of health education to the vulnerable displaced people, for example, the hepatitis A outbreak in the Za’atari camp due to unhygienic conditions. The nurses visited schools explaining the importance of washing hands after visiting the toilet and before handling food. The nurses do vaccination of measles on people under the age of 30 before getting in the camp, in addition to undertaking prenatal care and delivery of babies in the camp. They also taught the women the importance of family planning asks for better working equipment in the refugee camp to increase saving lives. One of the nursing values is promoting the health of a patient and their well-being. Sometimes nurses have to make autonom ous decisions, for example breaking shocking news that an individual is tested positive for HIV/AIDS (Choo, Hutchinson, & Bucknall, 2010). Â  Empowered nurses are allowed to admit/discharge patients. Support of patients living with HIV/AIDS is a role of a nurse. Patients who are supported feel accepted and loved. The researchers in the Zaatari camp health care center look for ways to improve the healthcare services. The research nurses uncover ways to improve the lives of patients living with chronic diseases such as cancer (Wintersgill & Wheeler, 2012).

Friday, August 23, 2019

Media anylsis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Media anylsis - Essay Example To drive analysis magazine actually published. Through very careful fact, the form of the deduction of exact data about the assembly for who it is intended. Once you've wise periodical, a thesis and compose 750-word term paper founded on your results. Cosmopolitan entails "having broad worldwide complexity." In supplement, the well liked drink made well renowned by HBO Sex in the City. Each month, distinct hegemonic pieces are offered to the goal assembly of Cosmopolitan as a entails to persuade their yearns to discover about sex, latest tendency and attractiveness, while extending to reinforce automatically diverging notions that women are defectives, and should change yourself to be more gladly acknowledged the men and remainder of society. Cosmopolitan drive all items and advertisements to exact goal markets. Readers of the magazine encompass the first lone, white, peak men of the middle class and women elderly 18 to 70 years. Cosmo encompasses forms of other nationalities, but fo cuses on employers in the Caucasus. There are two kinds of readers who will purchase Cosmopolitan: one that delicacies he like his Bible and one that loves to joke and have joy monthly magazine provides. Each propel kind has distinct goals, anxieties and interests. True to the magazine-lover mindfully read the items from starting to end with the aim of discovering the newest latest tendency tips and attitudes from fervent sex that she "should trial it out tonight!" This is a book reader of his very well liked topics, possibly, "Real Life Reads" and wants "Love and Lust" and had increased this month. The casual book reader, although, did not the identical expectations (Ken 2010). Some of the reasons of a publication can be to encourage a political or lesson reason, to announce, to deal goods, and to entertain. In my attitude, Cosmopolitan, has what it takes to be called one of the large-scale snowboard magazines on the market. It is in converses with riders from all distinct nations, and informative items that notify us "losers" as is "an astonishing way to move." Especially manage not overlook to "buy" photographs, where they brag of their young individual travellers' Red Destruction "(a period utilised to interpret numerous snowboarders travelling the large-scale snow). Interview in this magazine actually stand out. The interviewer does become very individual and it makes the book reader seem as if they were in the room with the man. What actually got to me was a little consideration with Risto Scott. I read the starting of this interview, and was hooked. There were four parts of the column. The first, deserving "Inspiration", created of five parts intermediate enterprises on how to make your first magazine of achievement and how to endure in a world of writing. In the pillar of the next part, "business" and focus solely on announcing and the distinct procedures that can be utilised to get published. In the third part pillar called "technical" and comprises f our short items on distinct procedures of composing that may be helpful to writers of diverse genres. In the last pillar of the part titled "FYI" and was about to compose, and imminent events (Thompson 2007). Selected items from this magazine were

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Bretton Woods international monetary system Essay

Bretton Woods international monetary system - Essay Example This paper outlines the main features of the Bretton Woods international monetary system, that had effectively replaced the gold standard system. The conference at Bretton Woods was held in the year 1944. The delegates present during the conference were from 44 countries. The conference led to the creation of a new monetary system commonly referred to as the Bretton Woods system. The new system was supposed to be more effective in governing the financial and economic relations among the greatest economies in the world. Judging by the economic disasters that were experienced in the 1930s a new monetary system was considered to be a necessity. Due to the failure of the gold standard during the World War II there was a breakdown in international economic cooperation with each and every country devolving their economic policies. This is believed to have further fuelled the growth of the great depression. As a result of the Bretton Woods system each member country was expected to adopt a monetary policy that ensured that the exchange rates of their currency remain at a certain value. In such fixed rates, there was evidently an increase in the ease of undertaking international commercial transactions. In order to see to it that the Bretton Woods system was successful the delegates decided that they would establish two financial institutions. One of the two institutions was the International Monetary Fund . The other institution that was brought into existence was the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Customer Service Essay Example for Free

Customer Service Essay Handout In this Session, you have learned about: The principles, policies and procedures of your organisation How your organisation communicates its principles to employees Your organisation’s policies and codes of practice Consultations on changes to principles, policies and procedures Issues of public concern relating to your industry and organisation. Principles, policies and procedures Principles are the foundation of a system of beliefs within an organisation. Principles are the philosophy of the organisation, illustrating how the organisation ‘thinks’. A policy is a definite course of action adopted by an organisation, which guides employees and helps them put principles into practice. Customer service policies are similar in many organisations, but some may be tailored to fit your organisation’s specific principles. A procedure is a series of steps to be followed to correctly answer the telephone, deal with complaints, give refunds etc. Organisations tend to have their own specific procedures. Communicating principles to employees An organisation may communicate its principles to employees in the following ways: The recruitment process Reading material Group discussions Appraisals and feedback Improving team performance Principles may be worked into the recruitment process. Interviewees asked about the organisation’s principles. Organisation handbook and vision statement include principles. This may be the first thing new recruits learn about the organisation. Printing out principles and posting them in the office ensures they feature in every employee’s day. Principles could be printed on commonly used items. Hearing principles read out is more effective for some. Managers and team leaders remind employees of principles. Discussion of whether an employee adheres to principles may be part of a formal review. Company awards are used to publicise principles. Company away-days and team-building exercises are opportunities to remind employees of principles. Team-building tasks could be centred on principles. Policies and codes of practice A code of practice is a set of written rules or standards outlining the responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an employee or organisation. An industry-wide code of practice is often defined by a trade association or professional body. Policies tend to be written by an organisation and based on an industry-wide code of practice. Your organisation might make you aware of its policies or code of practice by: Publishing the code of practice/policies on their website or the intranet Emailing updates to the code of practice and policies to all employees Including the code of practice and policies in the organisation handbook Basing appraisals or feedback systems around policies / code of practice Indicating the trade association/professional body who wrote the code of practice. Consultations on change If you are consulted on changes, your opinion is considered by those making the decision. Ways to consult employees on changes to principles, policies and procedures include: Small group meetings (face-to-face or via a video conference) Questionnaire Discussion with line manager/team leader Intranet bulletins or a FAQ page Email Team bulletins Monthly newsletter Letter A trade union/employee representative or staff council. How you are consulted depends on the size and structure of your organisation, employee work practices and the information being communicated. If your organisation has 50+ employees, you have the right to request an Information and Consultation arrangement. Issues of public concern Issues of public concern relating to your industry or organisation could include: Product recall and customer safety – is your product/service safe and reliable? Confidentiality – do you store customer information securely? Accessibility – is it easy to contact your organisation/use your services? Quality – is product/service equal to competitors? Responsiveness – how quickly will you respond to a customer and resolve problems? Value customers – do you value your customers and treat them appropriately? Finances – are accounts transparent and investments ethical? Wider concerns – public health, economy, environment, exploitation of workers etc. Your organisation may deal with issues of public concern by: Establishing stringent testing and health and safety processes Ensuring varied and easily accessed means of communicating with the organisation Investing in public relations to communicate effectively with the public Establishing clear customer service policies, making them available to the public and ensuring that staff adhere to these policies Publishing the organisation’s accounts Publishing a code of practice relating to the organisation’s economic, ethical, environmental responsibilities etc.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

In Depth View The Valley Of Unrest English Literature Essay

In Depth View The Valley Of Unrest English Literature Essay The poem gives a sense of the few emotions that one feels first and foremost at delving into the world of Gothic. Fear. Horror. Tragedy. Solitary. Turmoil. But are they really enough to understand it? Gothic as a genre is far from simple interpretation. To that fact none are. The explanation for the word Gothic is simpler though. UC Davis  University Writing Program teaches about Gothic novels by first and foremost establishing the origin of the word Gothic. Although now gothic is popularly associated with literature and architecture, this misconception has to be set right. Its origins lie with the tribals. The Goths were one of the many Germanic tribes who fought numerous battles with the Roman Empire for centuries. According to their own myths, as recounted by Jordanes, a Gothic historian from the mid 6th century, the Goths originated in what is now southern Sweden. They reached the height of their power around 5th century A.D., when they sacked Rome and captured Spain, but their history finally subsumed under that of the countries they conquered. The association with architecture can be owed to the period of Renaissance. During this time Europeans rediscovered Greco-Roman culture and began to regard a particular type of architecture, mainly those built during the Middle Ages, as gothic not because of any connection to the Goths, but because the Uomo Universale (translates to universal man) considered these buildings barbaric and definitely not in that Classical style they so admired. The term Gothic, when applied to architecture, has nothing to do with the historical  Goths. In a British context it was even considered to extend to the Reformation in the sixteenth century and the definitive break with the Catholic past. Gothic broke the norms and thus acquired the name. Another strand of thought says that Gothic literature earned the name because all the novels seemed to take place in Gothic-styled architecture mainly castles, mansions, and, abbeys. The w ord is now used to describe an architectural style and, as a derivation of that, a genre of literature based on dark deeds in crumbling gothic mansions and castles is an intriguing mix of the two theories proposed by UC Davis. Defining the genre does not end there. Jerrold E.Hogle calls it an unstable genre. Gothic seduces, overpowers, confuses and blends not just the readers as well as other genres. Gothic as a genre comprises elements of mystery, horror, dark, tragedy things that disturb the normal and its perceptions. Romance is not what the mind grasps for while thinking of gothic. But that is what one needs to be aiming at even after preliminary studying. Be it your simple Wikipedia search that tells you Gothic fiction  is a genre of literature that combines elements of both  horror  and romance or a scholarly article which states Gothic fictions oscillate between the earthly laws of conventional reality and the possibilities of the supernatural emphasizing the difference between horror and romance as genres while reflecting on the common ground that has been christened Gothic. Horror predominantly is associated with Gothic genre eclipsing romance but that is not really the whole picture. Websters Collegiate Dictionary gives the primary definition of horror as a painful and intense fear, dread, or dismay. A genre of literature intended to thrill readers by provoking fear or revulsion through the portrayal of grotesque, violent, or supernatural events is Horror. Blood curling yes but it becomes heart wrenching as romance is dashed into the story line. Romance writers of America state that the two basic elements that comprise every romance novel are a central love story and an emotionally-satisfying and optimistic ending.  On the other hand, Janice Radway who popularized Romance beyond the usual feels the genre is assisted by the use of clichà ©s, uncomplicated syntax, and signifiers which utilize familiar cultural elements. This further strengthens the different poles of studying horror and romance but gothic brings with itself amalgamation of the peaks a nd lows of the other styles. Gothic can be termed a mixed or hybrid genre. In the contemporary world no genre can be strictly defined. Each genre transcends its boundary to join hands with another to prove more entertaining. Action meets tragedy, comedy with romance and so on and so forth. This is the case with gothic. Kelly Hurley in The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction resists calling the genre gothic horror and defines it as a genre comprised of texts that have been deemed popular; that deploy sensationalist and suspenseful plotting; that practice narrative innovation despite the frequent use of certain repetitive plot elements; that depict supernatural or seemingly supernatural phenomena or otherwise demonstrate a more or less antagonistic relation to realist literary practice; that actively seek to arouse a strong affective response (nervousness, fear, revulsion, shock) in their readers; that are concerned with insanity, hysteria, delusion, and alternate mental states in general; and that offer highly charged and often graphically extreme representations of human identities, sexual, bodily and psychic. This definition itself displays the heavy dose of horror in gothic but romance is not far behind. Fred Botting said that gothic is an exploration of mysterious supernatural energies, immense natural forces, and deep, dark human fears and desires that gothic texts apparently found their appeal. The appeal and identity of gothic relies on the dark according to him. This can be construed to be true to some extent. Gothic can be considered investigative literature as well of some puzzling entities. It can be as simple as a haunted house at the end of the road or a monster formed on legend that inhabits the marsh in the town forests. Gothic is often explained as a representation of the unsaid or hidden. Fears and anxieties that one may wonder about can be found in various gothic texts. This is the uniqueness of gothic. In general, the deep fears and longings in western readers that the gothic both symbolizes and disguises in romantic and exaggerated forms have been ones that contradict each other, and in such intermingled ways, that only extreme fictions of this kind can seem to resol ve them or even confront them. This explanation strives to keep a bridge between horror and romance. It forms its basis on the bizarreness of some of the thoughts can simply not be explained by one genre and requires two. The polarity of thought can be made sense by reading the diametrically opposed genres as one i.e. Horror + Romance= Gothic. Professor John Lye proposes that as the immediacy of the Holy threatened to disappear from the culture in the later 18th century the period was marked by literary expressions of the sublime, of the mysterious, and of the strange; by a return to the imagination of the mediaeval that marked pre-romantic period, so that the mediaeval was the place of historical reference and allusion. She says romance took two main forms in the English novel in the early part of the 19th century: Gothic Romance and Historical Romance. Gothic romance specialized in symbolic exploration of the unconscious through the strange, the haunting, and irrational. Like many romances the Gothic tended to be set in distant lands or on barren, threatening countrysides. Gothic romance exposed and dealt with deep anxieties in persons and the culture. Gothic set out to expose and deal with the consciously ignored. Heathcliff in  Wuthering Heights, for instance, is a dark foreigner and hence culturally the Other, that against which we define and defend our humanity and civilized state, he a man with no parentage, a waif from the slums of Europe; and he is a figuring-forth of the force and terror of evil and of the irrational, a force of energy without civility. He is inexplicable but compelling because he sums the fears of his time and, to an extent, ours. Frankensteins monster showed us the terrors that scientific interference in the holiness of the human held for us. Science has and always will be viewed as a necessary evil. Fr ankenstein in its very element embodies this statement with strokes of darkness. Hawthorne of The Scarlet letter fame defined this breed of romance as a place of more mystery, less specific description of concrete reality, a place where, if you will, both elemental and spiritual forces could be put in play in a landscape that was full of symbolic, almost allegorical, potential. Today romance is generally associated with the strange and mysterious, the adventurous, with the lure of foreign lands, with something slightly magical, with a story which refuses to be tied to the realist tradition and explores phenomena which are unusual, allegorical, and symbolic. Increasingly being stated is that Romance and horror form Gothic. They together have changed the perception of gothic from a horrifying sight of that which was most unbearable in a culture to recognition and embrace of the monster as the image, the inner, often denied aspects of us. Gothic follows the first law of genre according to Robert Miles which is to deviate and make it new. Horace Walpole followed the golden rule and identified gothic as a genre through his work. Hogle remarks on the pliability and malleability of this type of fiction making has proven to be stemming as it does from an uneasy conflation of genres, styles, and conflicted cultural concerns from its outset. The Castle of Otranto is looked at as the first gothic novel and its entry initiated a new literary genre namely gothic. It was first published in 1764 and simply changed the meaning of gothic. Before Walpole it was almost always a synonym for rudeness, barbarous, crudity, coarseness and lack of taste but due to Walpole the word assumed two new key meanings: first, vigorous, bold, heroic and ancient, and second, quaint, charming, romantic, sentimental and interesting. First the book was advocated as a blend of the two kinds of romance, the ancient and the modern, the former all imagination and improbability and the latter governed by the rules of probability connected with common life. He wished to bridge the gap between the romances of old which were according to him all marvel and wonder, and the realist romance of his own day. In this comparison he refers to his own cross between medieval chivalric romances and neoclassic tragedies oriented towards the old aristocracy, on the one hand, and the newly ascendant bourgeois novel directed in its comic elements and probabilities of common existence on the other hand. The second editions preface constitutes a manifesto for a new species of romance. With this edition he came forward as the author of Otranto. The year was 1765. The manifesto was a set of rules which if not for him would have in all probability been dismissed as a piece of eccentric whimsy. Castle of Otranto spearheaded a revolution in the world of medieval literature. It served as the direct model for an enormous quantity of novels written up through the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Once a successful formula was established it was done to death. Robert Miles talks about the terrorist system of novel writing. This system was supposed to bombard the senses of the readers. It was deemed to be different form horror. Ann Radcliffe even said terror expands the soul and awakens the faculties to a high degree of life. She states further that terror is pleasurable because it is cloaked in obscurity and mystery while horror is graphic and unequivocal. Due to the success of Gothic fiction the literary world witnessed a shocking increase in the imitative works although this only indicated the high level of consumption it also ended up giving birth to the terrorist novel writing. The time was after 1790 and this form of writing was a satirized form of the perceived system for writing Gothic Romances. Terror writing survived but sooner than later became eclipsed and Gothic emerged again. Gothic never limited itself. The eighteenth century gave way to Victorian gothic which in turn opened doors to Modern gothic. Post modern gothic, female gothic, gothic science fiction, postcolonial gothic, urban gothic and queer gothic are just a few examples. The basic elements of gothic were incorporated in various plots and added to the multiplying strands of gothic. Many scholars have identified a few elements that are mandatory in any gothic text claiming or aiming to be gothic. Elements of Gothic Novel by Robert Harris state the obvious rudiments of Gothic: 1. Setting in a castle.  The action takes place in and around an old castle, sometimes seemingly abandoned, sometimes occupied. The castle often contains secret passages, trap doors, secret rooms, dark or hidden staircases, and possibly ruined sections. The castle may be near or connected to caves, which lend their own haunting flavor with their branchings, claustrophobia, and mystery. 2. An atmosphere of mystery and suspense.  The work is pervaded by a threatening feeling, a fear enhanced by the unknown. Often the plot itself is built around a mystery, such as unknown parentage, a disappearance, or some other inexplicable event. 3. An ancient prophecy  is connected with the castle or its inhabitants (either former or present). The prophecy is usually obscure, partial, or confusing. What could it mean? In more watered down modern examples, this may amount to merely a legend: Its said that the ghost of old man Krebs still wanders these halls. 4. Omens, portents, visions.  A character may have a disturbing dream vision, or some phenomenon may be seen as a portent of coming events. For example, if the statue of the lord of the manor falls over, it may portend his death. In modern fiction, a character might see something (a shadowy figure stabbing another shadowy figure) and think that it was a dream. This might be thought of as an imitation vision. 5. Supernatural or otherwise inexplicable events.  Dramatic, amazing events occur, such as ghosts or giants walking, or inanimate objects (such as a suit of armor or painting) coming to life. In some works, the events are ultimately given a natural explanation, while in others the events are truly supernatural. 6. High, even overwrought emotion.  The narration may be highly sentimental, and the characters are often overcome by anger, sorrow, surprise, and especially, terror. Characters suffer from raw nerves and a feeling of impending doom. Crying and emotional speeches are frequent. Breathlessness and panic are common. 7. Women in distress.  As an appeal to the pathos and sympathy of the reader, the female characters often face events that leave them fainting, terrified, screaming, and/or sobbing. A lonely, pensive, and oppressed heroine is often the central figure of the novel, so her sufferings are even more pronounced and the focus of attention. The women suffer all the more because they are often abandoned, left alone (either on purpose or by accident), and have no protector at times. Hogle elaborates by pointing out that women are the figures most fearfully trapped between contradictory pressures and impulses. It is Otrantos Isabella who first finds herself in what has become the most classic Gothic circumstance: caught in a labyrinth of darkness full of cloisters underground and anxiously hesitant about what course to take there. 8. Women threatened by a powerful, impulsive, tyrannical male.  One or more male characters has the power, as king, lord of the manor, father, or guardian, to demand that one or more of the female characters do something intolerable. The woman may be commanded to marry someone she does not love (it may even be the powerful male himself), or commit a crime. Isabella in Otranto fears the pursuit of a domineering and lascivious patriarch who wants to use her womb as a repository for seed that may help him preserve his property and wealth, on the one hand, yet worried that, fleeing in an opposite direction, she is still within reach of somebody [male], she knew not whom, on the other. Women were constantly reduced to objects of exchange or as tools of child bearing. 9. The metonymy of gloom and horror.  Metonymy is a subtype of metaphor, in which something (like rain) is used to stand for something else (like sorrow). Note that the following metonymies for doom and gloom all suggest some element of mystery, danger, or the supernatural such as wind howling, rain blowing, eerie sounds, sighs, clanking chains, barking of distant dogs, ruins of buildings and several others. One of the classics is footsteps approaching and characters trapped in a room. These elements are highly common and dramatic. They are played up more in the world of cinema with various effects. 10. The vocabulary of the gothic.  The constant use of the appropriate vocabulary set creates the atmosphere of the gothic. Here as an example are some of the words (in several categories) that help make up the vocabulary of the gothic in  The Castle of Otranto. What is interesting about this table is the guidance it provides to its readers about identifying gothic in a simpler way. It also denotes the words that are frequently used to create the ambiance of a particular word to make it fitting in the plot and effortlessly gothic. Mystery diabolical, enchantment, ghost, goblins, haunted, infernal, magic, magician, miracle, necromancer, omens, ominous, portent, preternatural, prodigy, prophecy, secret, sorcerer, spectre, spirits, strangeness, talisman, vision Fear, Terror, or Sorrow afflicted, affliction, agony, anguish, apprehensions, apprehensive, commiseration, concern, despair, dismal, dismay, dread, dreaded, dreading, fearing, frantic, fright, frightened, grief, hopeless, horrid, horror, lamentable, melancholy, miserable, mournfully, panic, sadly, scared, shrieks, sorrow, sympathy, tears, terrible, terrified, terror, unhappy, wretched Surprise alarm, amazement, astonished, astonishment, shocking, staring, surprise, surprised, thunderstruck, wonder Haste anxious, breathless, flight, frantic, hastened, hastily, impatience, impatient, impatiently, impetuosity, precipitately, running, sudden, suddenly Anger anger, angrily, choler, enraged, furious, fury, incense, incensed, provoked, rage, raving, resentment, temper, wrath, wrathful, wrathfully Harris has also listed the Elements of Romance. In addition to the standard gothic machinery above, many gothic novels contain elements of romance as well. As observations denote romance and gothic have become synonymous to a great extent. A study of these elements shows similarities with elements of gothic and uniqueness of romance. Elements of romance include these: 1. Powerful love.  Heart stirring, often sudden, emotions create a life or death commitment. Many times this love is the first the character has felt with this overwhelming power. 2. Uncertainty of reciprocation.  What is the beloved thinking? Is the lovers love returned or not? 3. Unreturned love.  Someone loves in vain (at least temporarily). Later, the love may be returned. 4. Tension between true love and fathers control, disapproval, or choice. Most often, the father of the woman disapproves of the man she loves. 5. Lovers parted.  Some obstacle arises and separates the lovers, geographically or in some other way. One of the lovers is banished, arrested, forced to flee, locked in a dungeon, or sometimes, disappears without explanation. Or, an explanation may be given (by the person opposing the lovers being together)   that later turns out to be false. 6. Illicit love or lust threatens the virtuous one.  The young woman becomes a target of some evil mans desires and schemes. 7. Rival lovers or multiple suitors.  One of the lovers (or even both) can have more than one person vying for affection. The elements of romance create the required drama that increases the entertainment quotient and connects with a wider span of readers. This results in a wider appeal for gothic. Kelly Hurley states that the period of 1760- 1820 showed some identifiable characteristics. Gothic has been defined in terms of plot which features: Stock characters like the virtuous, imperiled young heroine. Stock events like her imprisonment by and flight from the demonic yet compelling villain. Setting: the gloomy castle and complicated underground spaces are a must. Hogle says that the tale usually takes place in an antiquated or seemingly antiquated space such as a vast prison, a graveyard, an aging city or a large old house. Theme: the genres preoccupation with taboo topics such as incest, sexual perversion, insanity and violence; its depictions of extreme emotional states, like rage, terror and vengefulness. Style is defined by its hyperbolic language. The need to exaggerate. Hogle states all gothic novels were satirized for their excesses. He believes that the Gothic exaggerates its own fictionality and does so through long lasting and creatively changing techniques. The language is one of the most important ones. The pattern of hyperbolically verbalizing contradictory fears and desires over a possible base of chaos and death, and in a blatantly fictional style, remains a consistent element in gothic. Atmosphere: Its elaborate attempts to create a brooding, suspenseful atmosphere. The vocabulary table is testament to this point. Those words are employed generously to create a certain aura. Narrative strategies are confusion of the story by means of narrative frames and narrative disjunction. The author aims to make the story jump in time and from character to character. A reading of Dracula will show the jump in narratives from Jonathan Harker, Mina Harker and Van Helsing. Since the narratives are in diary entry or letter formats it ends up keeping the reader engaged as well. Plotting: The use of densely packed and sensationalist, rather than realist plotting. Hogle states that within the antiquated spaces where the tales take place are hidden some secrets from the past (sometimes recent past) that haunt the characters, psychologically, physically or otherwise at the main time of the story. Impact on readers: Its affective relations to its readership whom it attempts to render anxious, fearful or paranoid. Fred Botting in his summation of Candyman explains standard horror and gothic themes: ghost stories, urban gothic gloom, romance plots and visual and verbal references to staple fictions alongside a persecuted (or insane heroine), the villain is a slasher figure ever ready to disembowel his victims with a hook, a Faustian temper, a vampiric blood letter feeding off social fears. Although the film was made in 1992, the story line was inspired by Clive Barkers book The Forbidden which came approximately two decades before the movie. The similarities can still be spotted though. Botting in his observations mentions the few elements that have proven to be elementary in this genre. Leslie Fielder in Invention of the American Gothic discusses the deep lingering fear for readers of the gothic that Fielder recognizes: the terror or possible horror that the ruination of older powers will haunt us all, not just with our desires for them, but with the fact that what grounds them, and now their usurpers, is really a deathly chaos. As mentioned earlier gothic does disturb the normal. Plaguing its readers with nightmares and deep rooted worries about possible tragedies is actually one of its aims. Gothic became the forum to say the unsaid and to represent the unspoken. A premise which led to wide spread popularity. Gothic has been under scrutiny by various fronts. It has been used as a point of reference in economic statements by the founder of Marxism. Karl Marx used one of the most common Gothic monsters, the vampire to simply drive his statement home. Capital is dead labor, which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks. This quote is from Capital, Volume I, and Chapter 10. He has deftly pointed towards capitalism as a blood sucking monster i.e. a vampire. Antonis Balaspoulos an eminent personality used similar references.   Ã‚  -labor value extracted from living bodies and congealed in the parasitically animated body of capital   Ã‚  -the abstraction of value which, in a bloodless movement, vampirizes all of the workers labor and, transforming itself into surplus-value, becomes capital The idea behind mentioning these statements is to catch a glimpse of gothic outside the literary world. An observation also has to be made of the replacement of gothic with vampires and of the stereotypical delegation of roles i.e. capital as the monster and the Labor as the victim. Psychoanalytic Gothic is an intriguing concept devised due to Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis. In the psychoanalytic gothic, we intensely desire the object that has been lost, or another object, person, or practice that might take its place, but we are aware at some level that this object carries with it the threat of punishment: the anger of the father, the breaking of the law, castration. This strand of gothic has been articulated by Steven Bruhm in the Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction. The want of something that does not belong to oneself. In both theory and clinical practice, psychoanalysis is primarily attributed to the work of Sigmund Freud, for whom the gothic was a rich source of imagery and through whom the Gothic continues to be analyzed today. Psychoanalysis provides us with a language for understanding conflicted psyche of the patient whose life story or history is characterized by neurotic disturbances and epistemological blank spots. More often than not , such psychoanalytical accounts are intensely gothic: The Uncanny (1919) and A Seventeenth Century Demonological Neurosis (1922) along with a number of Freuds case studies, make the figure of the tyrannical father central to the protagonists Gothic experiences as Stokers Dracula (1897). The Gothic provides the best known examples of those strange and ghostly figures that Freud saw as examples of The Uncanny. For him what is quintessentially uncanny is the deeply and internally familiar as it appears to us in seemingly external, repellant, and unfamiliar forms. Most familiar to Freud are strictly psychological or visceral drives from our earliest existence, such as sheer repetition- compulsions. But perhaps what is most central to the Gothic be it classical or contemporary is the very process of psychic life that for Freud defines the human condition. Now, what makes the contemporary Gothic contemporary is that the Freudian machinery is more than a tool for discussing narrative; it is in large part the subject matter of the narrative itself. To the degree that the contemporary Gothic subject is the psychoanalytic subject (and vice versa), she/ he becomes a/the field on which national, racial, and gender anxieties configured like Freudian drives get played out and symbolized over and over again. Gothic becomes particularly contemporary in both its themes and reception; however, is that these unconscious desires center on the problem of a lost subject, the most overriding basis of our need for the gothic and almost everything else. Botting does point out that psychoanalytic criticism one of the most common lenses through which the gothic is viewed, often misperceives its own scientific knowledge of sexual instinct and Oedipal wished exemplified in the tales of terror and horror, all too visible in their characters and on the surface of their narratives. So much for the buried machinations of desire. Botting advocates that gothic has some stock elements but so does its criticism. He thinks the all too deep reading misconstrues certain elements and they get falsely portrayed. Michel Foucaults transgression is applied on gothic as well. Transgression enables limits and values to be reaffirmed, terror and horror eliciting rejection and disgust; on the other hand, it draws eyes and imaginations, in fascination, to peep behind the curtain of limitation in the hope of glimpsing illicit excitements made all the more alluring for bearing the stamp of mystery and prohibition. Transgression means violating boundaries or committing offences. Gothic signifies a writing of excess with its hyperbolic language and drama. Gothic signified an over abundance of imaginative frenzy. Passion, excitement and sensation, transgress social properties and moral laws. Gothic excesses, nonetheless, the fascination with transgression and the anxiety over cultural limits and boundaries continues to produce hesitant emotions and meanings in their tales of darkness, desire and power. Gothic excesses are blamed of transgressing the proper limits of aesthetics as well as social order in the overflow of emotions. Gothic plots are criticized at times of celebrating criminal behaviour and carnal desires. As gothic came to represent the unsaid and the dark, it did transgress the beliefs and norms of the old world but due to the favourable rates of consumption, it remains an associated theory and nothing else. Gothic as a genre has been avidly debated, reformed, criticized and adaptive to the changes around it.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Emily Dickinsons Poetry :: Biography Biographies Essays

Emily dickinson's Poetry In Emily Dickinson's Poetry she has a great interest with brief encounters and transition states of mind. Dickinson's depicts many of her brief encounters in great detail. Even if it was only a passing moment, Dickinson does not omit any aspect of her sightings. An example of a passing moment which she develops into great detail would be Dickinson's first sighting of the bird in "A bird came down the walk" Here ED expands on the birds actions and movements. Her description of the bird in flight takes up many lines. Instead of simply telling us the bird took flight, she elaborates on the beauty and grace of his flight. The actions of the birds are awe - inspiring to her. "And rowed him softer home" "Than oars divide the ocean....." Dickinson's attitude to passing moments is quite complex, as she does not interpret them simply as a "passing moment" but an extraordinary descriptive event. Another example of a passing moment would be in "A narrow fellow in the grass" In this poem Dickinson's keen observation of passing moments is clearly observed. She notices every movement of the snake even though his movements are very sudden and fast. Initially the snake is characterized as transient or passing swiftly. These movements appear to be very sudden but Dickinson goes into more detail and as a result the essential nature of the snake is clearly defined. "The grass divides as with a comb" "Whip lash" "wrinkled and was gone" The snake's brief passing seems much longer to Dickinson whereas it was a very quick movement. By using he word "Whiplash" to describe the snakes actions we can see how sudden the experience must have been. She tells us how she was frightened to the core of her being: "Without a tighter breathing "And Zero at the bone" Dickinson does not treat this as a quick passing moment but an experience, which she elaborates on. This aspect of her work also occurs in "I felt a funeral in my brain" An example of this would be her stream of consciousness which is clearly illustrated with Dickinson' s urgent repetition of `And "

Monday, August 19, 2019

A Tool that Enhances Education Essay -- Teaching Computers Argumentati

A Tool that Enhances Education Computers have been instrumental in improving the quality of life for many people all over the world. Computers have enhanced education to make teaching and learning more productive. Such a technology has given people more opportunities for gathering information and developing education in all subjects like English, science, math, history, and the arts. People like myself have benefited from the variety of programs that the computer has brought in this century such as writing and office programs, encyclopedias, the Internet, email, and online communities. In the century we live in today, the computer is not only considered to be an important tool, but a necessity in a business oriented society. Computers have also been and continue to be a productive tool, especially in the world of education. In a critique titled "The Computer Delusion," Todd Oppenheimer, Associate Editor of Newsweek Interactive, argues that "the tremendous emphasis on computers and technology in elementary and secondary schools, and especially in the lower grades, can actually decrease the effectiveness of learning and teaching" (255). I disagree with Oppenheimer because with the proper use of computers, education can out do itself. Computers have and are still used productively in the classrooms to improve teaching and learning. Oddly enough, Oppenheimer included studies that he disagreed with on the five arguments that campaign the computerization of the nation's schools: Computers improve both teaching practices and student achievement. Computer literacy should be taught as early as possible; otherwise students will be left behind. To make tomorrow's work force competitive in an increasingly high-tech world, l... ...he home. With the proper use of computers teachers and students can use computers to help them with the curriculum. It is important for teachers to be guided and instructed on how to help benefit their students through the use of computers. The computer cannot take the place of a teacher because computers cannot speak or instruct students to read, write, and add, the way a real teacher would in a live situation. The presence of a live teacher is unique and necessary for a well-rounded education. People should not fear computers because they cannot replace the importance of a professional teacher. The computer should be used as a tool to enhance education and not replace it. Works Cited Oppenheimer, Todd. "The Computer Delusion." The Presence of Others. Ed. Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewics. Boston/New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. 255-285.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Capital Punishment Essay - Death Penalty is Socially Sanctioned Murder :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

The Death Penalty – Socially Sanctioned Murder Capital punishment is not "actual" punishment. It's a capital reaction to a type of criminal act. It serves no purpose. When a person is executed, the person learns no lesson. He or she cannot say, "Hey! I learned my lesson. I surely won't do that again," for he or she is dead. Although the word "punishment" is used in varying contexts, it is generally accepted that it is served out unpleasantly to an individual in hopes that that person learns from the punishment and, therefore, doesn't repeat the bad deed. Good grief... So, why execute? The question is one of justification. It is wrong to deliberately kill another person, yet capital punishment (or "killing") consists of doing precisely this. Cost of the Death Penalty Capital punishment in California, as in every other state, is more expensive than a life imprisonment sentence without the opportunity of parole. These costs are not the result of frivolous appeals but rather the result of Constitutionally mandated safeguards that can be summarized as follows: Juries must be given clear guidelines on sentencing, which result in explicit provisions for what constitutes aggravating and mitigating circumstances. Defendants must have a dual trial--one to establish guilt or innocence and if guilty a second trial to determine whether or not they would get the death penalty. Defendants sentenced to death are granted oversight protection in an automatic appeal to the state supreme court. These constitutional safeguards translate into: - a more extensive jury selection procedure - a four fold increase in the number of motions filed - a longer, dual trial process - more investigators and expert testimony - more lawyers specializing in death penalty litigation - and automatic, mandatory appeals Since there are few defendants who will plead guilty to a capital charge, virtually every death penalty trial becomes a jury trial with all of the above necessary requirements and expenses. In Los Angeles County, the total cost of capital punishment is $2,087,926. In Los Angeles County, the total cost of life imprisonment without possibility of parole is $1,448,935. General Studies A study done by the Sacramento Bee argued that California would save $90 million per year if it were to abolish the death penalty. The average cost of a capital trial in Texas is $2.3 million--three times the cost to incarcerate an individual for 40 years. The average cost of a capital trial in Florida is $3.2 million. Myths and Facts Deterrence Scientific studies have consistently failed to demonstrate that executions deter people from committing crime. The respected Thorsten

Saturday, August 17, 2019

American Fast Food in Korea Essay

1. Base on market information for Asia Pacific, we can made conclusion that business future in Asian region has to have bright future. With 33% of the world’s GDP and 50% of its population, Asia has emerged as a rapidly growing force in the global economy. Due to the cultural diversity, regulatory controls, growing base of consumer power and its own set of business â€Å"rules,† the multinational corporations (MNCs) find it challenging to enter the Asian market successfully. Most MNCs are reassessing their existing strategies or formulating new strategies to sustain their growth (4). With regional exports exceeding $1. 3 trillion, the East Asia and Pacific region’s share of trade in GDP is the highest in the world. (Global Development. Finance Report. 2006). The economy of South Korea has grown in the last 35 years. Per capita GNP only $100 in 1963, exceeded $20,000 USD in 2005. South Korea is now one of the world’s largest economies (as of 2006, it is 14th in the world according to GDP). (2). If we will compare Korean market to East Asian countries (Exhibit 1 p. 12). From report I have strong understanding that mane fast-food market in any Asian countries is in big cities. Let’s check urban population level in all Asian countries. Based on Exhibit 1 we can clearly see that Korea has one of the best Urban Population level-total population level 47. 6 million and urban population is 82%. Check GDP and GNI level. We can see that Korean level one of the highest in the Asia. Nominal GDP (2005 est. ): $811. 1 billion. GDP growth rate: 2003, 3. 1%; 2004, 4. 6%; 2005, 4. 0%. Per capita GNI (2004): $14, 162. (5). In 1997 Korea had some serious economic crises and faced sever difficulties. After some structural reforms in Korean government, economy starts to recovery. Already In 2001 Korea was 13th largest economy in the world with GNP of $398 billion. So based on all information from above I can make conclusion that Korea has good future and it is one of the most promising market in Asian region. 2. Porter’s Five Forces have become a yardstick for assessing industry profitability. They are†¦ ?Buyers’/customers’ power ?Suppliers’ power ?Rivalry among competitors ?Threat of new entrants ?Threat of substitute products I will try to analyze each one, for Korean fast food market. Buyers ‘power. The power of buyers is the impact that customers have on fast food industry. Buyers could be powerful in different circumstances. I believe that in our case we can say that buyers are concentrated. As I could explain earlier, main per cent of population in Korea are in the big cities. Its give us good idea that for fast food industry in this region will be easier to delivery product to the customers. Buyers purchase the significant proportion of output. Suppliers power. A fast food industry require raw material for there business-labor, components. It leads to buyer-supplier relationship between the fast food industry and the firms that provide it the raw materials used to create products. Suppliers are powerful if they are concentrated- it will be really expensive to switch the supplier. From another side suppliers are week if it will be many suppliers with standard product on the market Korean agriculture sector includes forestry and fisheries. National products are rice, vegetables, fruit, root crops, barley; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs, fish. About 20% of the land used for agricultural busyness (5). From here we can understand that for fast food companies will be easy to find or switch the suppliers without problems for there businesses. Threat of new entrants. The possibility that new firms may enter the industry also affects competition. In theory any firm should be able to enter and exit market. And if free entrance and exit exists, than profit always should be nominal. There are some barriers of entry. Easy to entry if: little brand franchise; access to distribution channels; common technology. On Korean market steal not allot firms with brand franchise. And it is big requirement in new choices for customers. It let us know that it will be easy to enter to the market. Threat of substitute products. Product price elasticity is affected by substitute products-as more substitute become available, the demand becomes more elastic since customers have more alternatives. A close substitute product constrains the ability of firms in an industry to raise prices. In our case we can see example of some firms, Lotteria and McDonalds, who easy change there recipes for Korean customers which needs more healthy national ingredients for there food. Rivalry among competitors. In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves: changing prices; improving product; creatively using channels of distribution; exploiting relationship with supplier. For firm who will try to enter Korean market, I would say more realistic and more helpful move will be to improve products. Improving quality of materials, quality of services, and probably quality of food preparation technology (healthier environment), will be most important key to success on the Korean fest food market. 3. Urban Koreans eat out frequently. Fast paced lifestyles are driving Koreans to choose western-style fast-food, but healthy eating is a concern. These factors are driving a fast growing market for sandwich store franchising (3). Another important factor is that about 75%-80% fast food customers are young people whose age less than 20 year old. It is mean that â€Å"along with westernization of Korean taste, western chain gained in popularity†. In the past, people seeking a fast meal would have been satisfied by fast-food giants like McDonald’s or Burger King, but it is changing. Consumers are seeking different choices. This new requirements has opened doors for a steadily growing market for fresh and healthy sandwich businesses. Lotteria is a local hamburger franchiser and is the fast-food market leader in Korea. From 2002 to 2003 Lotteria experienced a sharp sales drop of 40%. However, a strong contrast was seen in the South Korean sandwich market, as its $41. 20 million1 market value in the second quarter of 2003 doubled to $82. 40 million in the fourth quarter. This dramatic growth is forecast to continue, and the anticipated market value for 2004 is $117. 71 million (3) Besides Lotteria, the local franchisers include Sandday, Sandpresso and Sand & Food. In response to the aggressive foreign companies, they are also coming up with strategies to secure their position within the market, and the competition is about to heat up. Based on all this information I would say that fast food business in Korea growing and this will continue until people need more choices. 4Globalization is the key to sustained growth for Yum Company! Brands, the world’s biggest quick-service restaurant company headquartered in the United States and managing five fast food brands – KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, A&W and Long John Silver’s. â€Å"Demand for fast food is rising because lifestyles are changing,’’ said Allan, who leads overseas operations outside of the U. S.and China, in a recent interview with The Korea Times. More Koreans are being time pressured than they were historically. This trend is happening here. The number of people eating ready made food is continuing to increase. ’’(Graham Allan, president of Yum! Restaurants International. 11. 06. 2006) (6). As a socially responsible company, the 51-year-old executive said Yum will provide more optional dishes to health-conscious consumers amid a well-being spree in the nation, but will not abandon its traditional concept of â€Å"great taste. ’’ Under his leadership, Allan said he will target an annual growth of 10 percent or more in operating profits. There are about 250 Pizza Hut delivery outlets in the nation, which are set to expand to over 400. Korea makes up about 5 percent of Yum’s international division sales, which amount to some $11 billion – half of the group’s overall system sales. If I were business consultant, I would recommend starting making money on Korean fast food market. The new trend is propelling growth in the franchising market. It is anticipated that the market will experience intense competition for the next couple years. New fast food companies should be able to take advantage of the situation and enter the market without much difficulty, while it is still at an early stage of development. Reference page: 1. http://www. iff. com/Internet. nsf/0/B7A5C7E9B662B52685256D02006683DA 2. http://www. answers. com/topic/economy-of-south-korea 3. http://ats. agr. ca/asia/3879_e. htm 4. www. berkeleyabc. org/2006/ 5. http://www. state. gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800. htm 6. http://times. hankooki. com/lpage/biz/200611/kt2006110617463411890. htm.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Current Economic Policy Essay

From 2006 up to the present, the economy of the United State has been performing great in general. Gross Domestic Product increased by significant rate enough to encourage the foreign investors to invest in the country. Furthermore, more jobs have been created for the labor marker creating huge improvement on the welfare of the workers, thus, increasing their income. Around more than 850,000 jobs has been created in the economy from 2006 up to the present. Energy prices, on the other hand, seem to become worse after oil prices in the international market has been increasing sharply for the past years. Because of the said increase in the prices of oil in the market, it negatively affects the non-energy goods and services since oil is one of the major components of production processes in most of the industries in the economy. Inflation also increased as a consequence of the increasing prices of the commodities in the market due to the rising oil prices. Inflation rate, since 2006, stood high enough to impose panic to the consumers and there is a possibility that the latter might just lower down their spending making. Moreover, the housing industry also made the improvement of the GDP sluggishly and this is the side effect of the massive housing spending of the market in 2005 not to mention that the disposable income of the consumers today is not that high enough as compared to 2005. Although there are certain hindrances on the improvement of GDP or economic improvement of the country, still, the economy manages to offset those costs by the benefits derived from the good market condition of the international market which in turn advance the trade balance of our country. In addition to that, increasing job opportunities makes the depletion in the consumption of the consumers to slow down since income of the workers improves as more job were created in the economy. Furthermore, labor productivity helps the private firms to reinvigorate their profitability and sales volume making the government able to charge higher taxes to be used for financing government projects for the economy. Proposed Economic Stabilization Policy One of the possible way by which the US government could further stabilize the growth of the US economy would be through lower down the tax rate that the government has been charging especially for the multinational corporations. Through cutting down the tax rate of the companies in the market, especially those multinational corporations since it could offset the rising salaries of the laborers due to the high demand for laborers in the market. It was identified that because of the high demand for laborers in the market due to the fast-faced growth of the economy for the past years, the bargaining power of the laborers for higher salaries increased imposing threats for a higher operational costs for the private firms. The improvement of the income of every household could helped the economy revitalized the housing market that is why an increase in the salaries of the laborers is badly needed in the market today. So as not to sacrifice the welfare of the private firms which also contributes largely to the sustainable growth of the economy of the past years, the only option of the government is to lower down the taxes that they are charging from these people. In short, it is the government who would shoulder the burden or the costs of improving the housing industry not to mention that there is a great possibility that disposable income of the consumer group might increase due to the increase in their salaries. For sure, the job losses on the part of the government due to the lack of fund to finance government projects after the taxes being collected to large corporation would be offset by the additional job vacancies being created by the private industry every month in the economy. This only points out that even if this kind of policy would slow down the construction of infrastructures for the public or any government services being offered in the economy is very insignificant as compared to those persons or group of person that will benefits from this kind of policy. Policy Target The said proposed policy would only cover multinational and corporation type of companies for these are the business entities that employs the majority of the worker in the market. Moreover, international branches of the said corporation will also be included in the said proposed policy. For multinational company, tax rate would depend on the level of their profitability and sales volume. Whereas, corporations or those companies that only operate on the US market would have a fixed tax rate just to account their financial capabilities and the amount of labor force that they are utilizing for their operation. Current Use of the Policy Well, so far, President George W. Bush actually advocating the importance of tax cuts in order to protect the interest of the producers or private firms in the market for they are the one who drags the economy towards progress as well as the increase in the salaries of the workers in the economy (Seib, 2007). Moreover, the issue regarding this tax rate reduction becomes more interesting to the presidential candidates and serves as part of their platforms in their campaign. The reason behind the popularity of tax cutting to most of the presidential candidate is due to the fact that this issue encompasses not only the private sector but also the consumer and labor group of which the majority are voters for the up coming election. Although politically driven, there is still a basis for the presidential candidates to propose and support such said kind of policy for the economy, and true enough, tax cutting is being viewed as one of the possible solution for the growth of the US economy to become more sustainable. But then again, after considering those benefits than can be derived from implementing this kind of policy, based also from the tax cutting model of President Bush, there is a little possibility that this would not be implemented in the near future alongside with other economic policies of the government. Potential Problems and Issues Although the consumers and the private firms will be well-off from the shouldering of the government of the costs of high oil prices in the market, still, the insufficient amount of available budget for the coming fiscal period would surely made the provision of government project become sluggish. As most of the economists know, government plays a vital role in maintaining equilibrium condition in the economy like the provision of public goods. These are goods that when provided by the private firms would only caused inefficiencies and ineffectiveness on producing such goods, thus, worsening the welfare of the consumer group. Like for instance, the provision of street lights, it is the government’s responsibility to give its citizens with street light for the security of the latter. By cutting the tax being charge to the corporation, there is a big chance of having insufficient funds for street lighting perhaps, or unfinished roads for a couple of months due to lack of funds and so on and so forth. Tax, on the field of public economics, only causes losses on the societal welfare. It only creates gain for the society if it is being used as a correctional tool to put back the economy into its equilibrium state. Like in the case of negative externality emitters in the economy, the are being charged by higher tax that the usual amount in order to force them to cut down their production or to slow down their operation on the optimal level for the society. The only point here is that, tax cutting would just make the budget deficit problem of the government to become worse assuming that the gains from the performance of the economy will not change that significantly for the next couple of fiscal periods. But since the Federal Reserve predicts that the US economy would still expand for the next period, then, tax cutting will not worsen the budget deficit of the government as what is being expected by some of the government officials.

Monarchy Restoration

King Charles I was born at Fife in Scotland on 19th November 1600 and was the son of James VI and Anne of Denmark. His father was to become King James I in 1603 after succeeding Queen Elizabeth I to come to the throne of England. At Baptism in December 1600 Charles was created Duke of Albany and in 1605 became the Duke of York. (Carlton, Charles. 95). Charles had an elder brother named Prince Henry who overshadowed Charles in every manner; unfortunately he passed on when Charles was 12 years old. Charles became the heir to the throne of the 3 Kingdoms that included England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1625 he was to become the second Stuart King. It was during this period that there was immense pressure from the English Protestants for the intervention against Spain in the religious wars that were prevalent in Europe between the Catholics and the Protestants. (Murphy, Derrick, 215) King Charles allowed the unpopular Duke of Buckingham to direct England’s foreign policy, the introduce disastrous military exploitation against Spain and France. Parliament tried to Impeach Buckingham towards which Charles dissolved the first two. The Third Parliament drew the Petition of Right to contain Charles’ abuse of power. During his reign he continued to suppress any form of dissent and continued to alienate himself from the people. He even went ahead and married Henrietta Maria a French Catholic cause some disquiet amongst the Protestants. Against this backdrop tension went on to build up until 22 August 1642 when the Civil War broke out. The Parliament using the navy that Charles had helped equip, won London. This forced Charles to set up court and military at Oxford. (Carlton, Charles,143). Afterwards Through Charles command, the Royalist Army was able to experience some victories. They defeated Sir William Waller at the battle of Cropredy Bridge and in the summer of 1644 defeated the Earl of Essex at Lostwithiel. However the army was hit arguments and jealousies especially amongst the senior officers. This coupled by Charles’ indecisiveness hampered greatly the army’s effort. Parliament/Scottish alliance formed a formidable army called the New Model Army. (Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane, 155). It was this army that defeated the Royalists in 1645. Charles fled Oxford in 1646 and surrendered to the Scottish army. While here he tried to exploit the divisions between the Parliamentarians and the Scots. These antics would eventually lead to the Second Civil war of 1648 where Cromwell defeated the Scots. Charles was to be captured and later on beheaded at Whitehall on 30th January 1649. (Carlton, Charles, 195). Oliver Cromwell He was born in Huntington on 25th April 1599; he is played a major role in bringng to trial and eventual execution of Charles I. He became the only non-Royal ever to hold the position of The Lord Protector of England.   He rose through the ranks to become this powerful and had the most complete and most brutal army. The army was credited with the conquest over the English neighbors. He is considered to be on one of the most controversial figures in history.   Some historians view him as the defender of the principles of liberties, and advocate of religious freedom and diversity (he inculcated the respect for God) and others view him as a tyrant, bigot and murderer. The latter view was because left behind a legacy of massacres in Ireland. He imposed military rule. (Murphy, Derrick, 226) In 1658, Cromwell declared that his son Richard Cromwell should replace him as Lord Protector Of the Commonwealth. This decision did not excite the English Army because Richard was a mere country farmer unlike his father who was a skilful military officer. After Oliver Cromwell’s death on 3rd September 1658, his son succeeded him as the Lord Protector. However the army generals forced him to retire from government in May 1659.After the Restoration in 1660 Cromwell’s body was exhumed from the tomb of Kings in Westminster Abbey and was hanged at Tyburn. (Murphy, Derrick, 225) After Richards’s departure, General George Monk who was the army officer in charge of the English army in Scotland marched to London in 1660 with his army and restored the House of Lords and the Parliament 1640. It was compost mainly of Royalists who went ahead to restore the Monarch to Charles II, who pardoned the Parliamentary army and continued with the Commonwealth’s policy of religious tolerance. Puritans lost political power and would not be allowed in the House of Commons. It was during his reign that the Monarch was restored to its original form. (Miller, John, 185). Works Cited Carlton, Charles. (1995). Charles I: The personal monarch. Second edition. London: Routledge. Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England,   Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), Miller, John (1985). Restoration England: the reign of Charles II. London: Longman. Murphy, Derrick, ed. (2002) Britain 1558-1689 1st Edition. London: HarperCollins Publishers pp. 211-235

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Shc 3.4 Health & Safety, Risk Additional

CYP Core 3. 4 Support children and young people’s health and safety 1. Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. As a childcare provider it is my responsibility for the safety of the children in my care. There are a number of legal and regulatory guidance to help protect children and adults in my setting.All staff should be made aware of any potential hazards such as, security, fire, food safety, physical, personal and keeping up to date training on how to deal with these and maintain every one safety, including visitors, family and other colleagues in my setting. The most important legislation in a child care setting is the EYFS that covers all aspect of the welfare of children and young people in all early years setting. NICMA Public Liability Guidance/ Insurance The child minding body which un dertakes public liability insurance for all children within my setting for any claims of injury against the provider.Private Business Car Insurance Car Insurance which covers minded children in my setting for outings and travel between providers home and school environment. Smoking Ban In my setting there is non- smoking policy. Healthly Eating Within my setting I promote a healthly eating plan and advise parents on healthly snacks/foods. Daily Exercise On a daily basis I promote daily exercise weather permitted, for example walking or activities in the garden. Access NI Checks These are carried out on all persons that are entering premises during working hours and children living within the childcare setting over the age of 11 to be vetted also.BSI Kitemark All play equipment within my setting comply with BSI Kitemarks Once every year my setting gets a yearly inspection by a social worker to make sure I meet all the requirements of an early years setting to provide a safe environme nt for children and young people. 3. Understand how to support children and young people to assess and manage risk for them. 3. 2 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements. The UN convention on the Rights of the Child clearly identifies the rights of children and young people to learn and develop into adults and be protected from harm† Tassoni 2010 page 145. You can also refer to the Children’s NI order 1995 which refers to all childrens rights to development, and safety rights. Childcare providers have a responsibility to be active in creating the conditions that make children feel that almost anything is possible and achievable. â€Å"The challenge for carers is balancing the need for safety of the child against the need for children and young people to explore risks. Meggitt page 150 Children learn a lot from trying out new experiences for themselves. Many children do not have the experience an d knowledge to judge whether it is a safe choice to explore their own levels of risk taking. Parents and carers have the responsibility to decide the activity is safe and identify possible hazards as children and young people may not make the correct judgement, however children and young people should be given the opportunity to explore in a safe environment under supervision.If we do not enable children to explore risk taking activities they will seek them out when adults are not around. Children and young people need to explore their own levels of risk, but always in a safe environment and with an adult who is able to administer first aid if an accident should happen. We aim to make children aware of health and safety issues to minimise the hazards and risk to enable the children to thrive in a healthy and safe environment. We ensure that the environment that the children are playing in is regularly checked before and during activities. . Understand appropriate responses to accide nts, incidents emergencies and illness in work settings and off site visits. 4. 2 Identify the correct procedures for recording and reporting accidents, incidents, injuries, signs of illness and other emergencies Reporting and recording accidents and incidents, signs of illness and other emergencies: The occurrence of an accident should be reported immediately to the parents/emergency contact name given to me the childcare provider. A procedure for reporting and recording accidents goes in the Accident Report Book.In my setting I need to ensure that I know all relevant procedures and how to deal with them, as I work alone and it’s my sole responsibility to report, record and inform parents and other professionals of all issues relating to the welfare and well-being of children in my setting. It is a legal responsibility to record any incidents or accidents that occur during my day as a childcare provider, as well as the steps taken to manage the incident. Recording these deta ils will help to identify any trends or common incidents that occur, as well as areas that could be addressed to improve safety.This record will be vital in the possible event of legal action. A copy of the illness and injury report form should be submitted to the relevant person. When documenting the occurrence of an illness or injury, briefly note it in the relevant box on the session plan and then record the full details on an illness and injury report form or in an accident record book. At least the following details should be recorded: 1. Date, time and place of incident. 2. Name of ill/injured person. 3. Details of ill/injured and any first aid given. 4. What happened to the casualty immediately afterwards (e. . did the child continue to participate in the days activities, or where they sent home/admitted to hospital, etc) 5. Name and signature of person dealing with the incident. If a child, or member of staff or other visitors goes to hospital from my setting I must inform R IDDOR. If a child is seriously injured I must report the accident/incident to the Health & Safety Executive. I always go back to current policies and procedures within my setting as they can and do change. I take guidance and advice from the social worker in charge of my local area.